@license AngularJS v1.0.6

(c) 2010-2012 Google, Inc. http://angularjs.org

License: MIT

(function(window, document, undefined) {
'use strict';

//////////////////////////////////

@ngdoc function

@name angular.lowercase

@function

@description Converts the specified string to lowercase.

@param {string} string String to be converted to lowercase.

@returns {string} Lowercased string.

var lowercase = function(string){return isString(string) ? string.toLowerCase() : string;};

@ngdoc function

@name angular.uppercase

@function

@description Converts the specified string to uppercase.

@param {string} string String to be converted to uppercase.

@returns {string} Uppercased string.

var uppercase = function(string){return isString(string) ? string.toUpperCase() : string;};


var manualLowercase = function(s) {
  return isString(s)
      ? s.replace(/[A-Z]/g, function(ch) {return String.fromCharCode(ch.charCodeAt(0) | 32);})
      : s;
};
var manualUppercase = function(s) {
  return isString(s)
      ? s.replace(/[a-z]/g, function(ch) {return String.fromCharCode(ch.charCodeAt(0) & ~32);})
      : s;
};

String#toLowerCase and String#toUpperCase don't produce correct results in browsers with Turkish locale, for this reason we need to detect this case and redefine lowercase/uppercase methods with correct but slower alternatives.

if ('i' !== 'I'.toLowerCase()) {
  lowercase = manualLowercase;
  uppercase = manualUppercase;
}


var // holds major version number for IE or NaN for real browsers
    msie              = int((/msie (\d+)/.exec(lowercase(navigator.userAgent)) || [])[1]),
    jqLite,           // delay binding since jQuery could be loaded after us.
    jQuery,           // delay binding
    slice             = [].slice,
    push              = [].push,
    toString          = Object.prototype.toString,

@name angular

    angular           = window.angular || (window.angular = {}),
    angularModule,
    nodeName_,
    uid               = ['0', '0', '0'];

@ngdoc function

@name angular.forEach

@function

@description Invokes the iterator function once for each item in obj collection, which can be either an object or an array. The iterator function is invoked with iterator(value, key), where value is the value of an object property or an array element and key is the object property key or array element index. Specifying a context for the function is optional.

Note: this function was previously known as angular.foreach.

<pre> var values = {name: 'misko', gender: 'male'}; var log = []; angular.forEach(values, function(value, key){ this.push(key + ': ' + value); }, log); expect(log).toEqual(['name: misko', 'gender:male']); </pre>

@param {Object|Array} obj Object to iterate over.

@param {Function} iterator Iterator function.

@param {Object=} context Object to become context (this) for the iterator function.

@returns {Object|Array} Reference to obj.

@private

@param {*} obj

@return {boolean} Returns true if obj is an array or array-like object (NodeList, Arguments, ...)

function isArrayLike(obj) {
  if (!obj || (typeof obj.length !== 'number')) return false;

We have on object which has length property. Should we treat it as array?

  if (typeof obj.hasOwnProperty != 'function' &&
      typeof obj.constructor != 'function') {

This is here for IE8: it is a bogus object treat it as array;

    return true;
  } else  {
    return obj instanceof JQLite ||                      // JQLite
           (jQuery && obj instanceof jQuery) ||          // jQuery
           toString.call(obj) !== '[object Object]' ||   // some browser native object
           typeof obj.callee === 'function';              // arguments (on IE8 looks like regular obj)
  }
}


function forEach(obj, iterator, context) {
  var key;
  if (obj) {
    if (isFunction(obj)){
      for (key in obj) {
        if (key != 'prototype' && key != 'length' && key != 'name' && obj.hasOwnProperty(key)) {
          iterator.call(context, obj[key], key);
        }
      }
    } else if (obj.forEach && obj.forEach !== forEach) {
      obj.forEach(iterator, context);
    } else if (isArrayLike(obj)) {
      for (key = 0; key < obj.length; key++)
        iterator.call(context, obj[key], key);
    } else {
      for (key in obj) {
        if (obj.hasOwnProperty(key)) {
          iterator.call(context, obj[key], key);
        }
      }
    }
  }
  return obj;
}

function sortedKeys(obj) {
  var keys = [];
  for (var key in obj) {
    if (obj.hasOwnProperty(key)) {
      keys.push(key);
    }
  }
  return keys.sort();
}

function forEachSorted(obj, iterator, context) {
  var keys = sortedKeys(obj);
  for ( var i = 0; i < keys.length; i++) {
    iterator.call(context, obj[keys[i]], keys[i]);
  }
  return keys;
}

when using forEach the params are value, key, but it is often useful to have key, value.

@param {function(string, *)} iteratorFn

@returns {function(*, string)}

function reverseParams(iteratorFn) {
  return function(value, key) { iteratorFn(key, value) };
}

A consistent way of creating unique IDs in angular. The ID is a sequence of alpha numeric characters such as '012ABC'. The reason why we are not using simply a number counter is that the number string gets longer over time, and it can also overflow, where as the nextId will grow much slower, it is a string, and it will never overflow.

@returns an unique alpha-numeric string

function nextUid() {
  var index = uid.length;
  var digit;

  while(index) {
    index--;
    digit = uid[index].charCodeAt(0);
    if (digit == 57 //'9') {
      uid[index] = 'A';
      return uid.join('');
    }
    if (digit == 90  //'Z') {
      uid[index] = '0';
    } else {
      uid[index] = String.fromCharCode(digit + 1);
      return uid.join('');
    }
  }
  uid.unshift('0');
  return uid.join('');
}

@ngdoc function

@name angular.extend

@function

@description Extends the destination object dst by copying all of the properties from the src object(s) to dst. You can specify multiple src objects.

@param {Object} dst Destination object.

@param {...Object} src Source object(s).

function extend(dst) {
  forEach(arguments, function(obj){
    if (obj !== dst) {
      forEach(obj, function(value, key){
        dst[key] = value;
      });
    }
  });
  return dst;
}

function int(str) {
  return parseInt(str, 10);
}


function inherit(parent, extra) {
  return extend(new (extend(function() {}, {prototype:parent}))(), extra);
}

@ngdoc function

@name angular.noop

@function

@description A function that performs no operations. This function can be useful when writing code in the functional style. <pre> function foo(callback) { var result = calculateResult(); (callback || angular.noop)(result); } </pre>

function noop() {}
noop.$inject = [];

@ngdoc function

@name angular.identity

@function

@description A function that returns its first argument. This function is useful when writing code in the functional style.

<pre> function transformer(transformationFn, value) { return (transformationFn || identity)(value); }; </pre>

function identity($) {return $;}
identity.$inject = [];


function valueFn(value) {return function() {return value;};}

@ngdoc function

@name angular.isUndefined

@function

@description Determines if a reference is undefined.

@param {*} value Reference to check.

@returns {boolean} True if value is undefined.

function isUndefined(value){return typeof value == 'undefined';}

@ngdoc function

@name angular.isDefined

@function

@description Determines if a reference is defined.

@param {*} value Reference to check.

@returns {boolean} True if value is defined.

function isDefined(value){return typeof value != 'undefined';}

@ngdoc function

@name angular.isObject

@function

@description Determines if a reference is an Object. Unlike typeof in JavaScript, nulls are not considered to be objects.

@param {*} value Reference to check.

@returns {boolean} True if value is an Object but not null.

function isObject(value){return value != null && typeof value == 'object';}

@ngdoc function

@name angular.isString

@function

@description Determines if a reference is a String.

@param {*} value Reference to check.

@returns {boolean} True if value is a String.

function isString(value){return typeof value == 'string';}

@ngdoc function

@name angular.isNumber

@function

@description Determines if a reference is a Number.

@param {*} value Reference to check.

@returns {boolean} True if value is a Number.

function isNumber(value){return typeof value == 'number';}

@ngdoc function

@name angular.isDate

@function

@description Determines if a value is a date.

@param {*} value Reference to check.

@returns {boolean} True if value is a Date.

function isDate(value){
  return toString.apply(value) == '[object Date]';
}

@ngdoc function

@name angular.isArray

@function

@description Determines if a reference is an Array.

@param {*} value Reference to check.

@returns {boolean} True if value is an Array.

function isArray(value) {
  return toString.apply(value) == '[object Array]';
}

@ngdoc function

@name angular.isFunction

@function

@description Determines if a reference is a Function.

@param {*} value Reference to check.

@returns {boolean} True if value is a Function.

function isFunction(value){return typeof value == 'function';}

Checks if obj is a window object.

@private

@param {*} obj Object to check

@returns {boolean} True if obj is a window obj.

function isWindow(obj) {
  return obj && obj.document && obj.location && obj.alert && obj.setInterval;
}


function isScope(obj) {
  return obj && obj.$evalAsync && obj.$watch;
}


function isFile(obj) {
  return toString.apply(obj) === '[object File]';
}


function isBoolean(value) {
  return typeof value == 'boolean';
}


function trim(value) {
  return isString(value) ? value.replace(/^\s*/, '').replace(/\s*$/, '') : value;
}

@ngdoc function

@name angular.isElement

@function

@description Determines if a reference is a DOM element (or wrapped jQuery element).

@param {*} value Reference to check.

@returns {boolean} True if value is a DOM element (or wrapped jQuery element).

function isElement(node) {
  return node &&
    (node.nodeName  // we are a direct element
    || (node.bind && node.find));  // we have a bind and find method part of jQuery API
}

@param str 'key1,key2,...'

@returns {object} in the form of {key1:true, key2:true, ...}

function makeMap(str){
  var obj = {}, items = str.split(","), i;
  for ( i = 0; i < items.length; i++ )
    obj[ items[i] ] = true;
  return obj;
}


if (msie < 9) {
  nodeName_ = function(element) {
    element = element.nodeName ? element : element[0];
    return (element.scopeName && element.scopeName != 'HTML')
      ? uppercase(element.scopeName + ':' + element.nodeName) : element.nodeName;
  };
} else {
  nodeName_ = function(element) {
    return element.nodeName ? element.nodeName : element[0].nodeName;
  };
}


function map(obj, iterator, context) {
  var results = [];
  forEach(obj, function(value, index, list) {
    results.push(iterator.call(context, value, index, list));
  });
  return results;
}

@description Determines the number of elements in an array, the number of properties an object has, or the length of a string.

Note: This function is used to augment the Object type in Angular expressions. See {@link angular.Object} for more information about Angular arrays.

@param {Object|Array|string} obj Object, array, or string to inspect.

@param {boolean} [ownPropsOnly=false] Count only "own" properties in an object

@returns {number} The size of obj or 0 if obj is neither an object nor an array.

function size(obj, ownPropsOnly) {
  var size = 0, key;

  if (isArray(obj) || isString(obj)) {
    return obj.length;
  } else if (isObject(obj)){
    for (key in obj)
      if (!ownPropsOnly || obj.hasOwnProperty(key))
        size++;
  }

  return size;
}


function includes(array, obj) {
  return indexOf(array, obj) != -1;
}

function indexOf(array, obj) {
  if (array.indexOf) return array.indexOf(obj);

  for ( var i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {
    if (obj === array[i]) return i;
  }
  return -1;
}

function arrayRemove(array, value) {
  var index = indexOf(array, value);
  if (index >=0)
    array.splice(index, 1);
  return value;
}

function isLeafNode (node) {
  if (node) {
    switch (node.nodeName) {
    case "OPTION":
    case "PRE":
    case "TITLE":
      return true;
    }
  }
  return false;
}

@ngdoc function

@name angular.copy

@function

@description Creates a deep copy of source, which should be an object or an array.

  • If no destination is supplied, a copy of the object or array is created.
  • If a destination is provided, all of its elements (for array) or properties (for objects) are deleted and then all elements/properties from the source are copied to it.
  • If source is not an object or array, source is returned.

    Note: this function is used to augment the Object type in Angular expressions. See {@link ng.$filter} for more information about Angular arrays.

    @param {*} source The source that will be used to make a copy. Can be any type, including primitives, null, and undefined.

    @param {(Object|Array)=} destination Destination into which the source is copied. If provided, must be of the same type as source.

    @returns {*} The copy or updated destination, if destination was specified.

function copy(source, destination){
  if (isWindow(source) || isScope(source)) throw Error("Can't copy Window or Scope");
  if (!destination) {
    destination = source;
    if (source) {
      if (isArray(source)) {
        destination = copy(source, []);
      } else if (isDate(source)) {
        destination = new Date(source.getTime());
      } else if (isObject(source)) {
        destination = copy(source, {});
      }
    }
  } else {
    if (source === destination) throw Error("Can't copy equivalent objects or arrays");
    if (isArray(source)) {
      destination.length = 0;
      for ( var i = 0; i < source.length; i++) {
        destination.push(copy(source[i]));
      }
    } else {
      forEach(destination, function(value, key){
        delete destination[key];
      });
      for ( var key in source) {
        destination[key] = copy(source[key]);
      }
    }
  }
  return destination;
}

Create a shallow copy of an object

function shallowCopy(src, dst) {
  dst = dst || {};

  for(var key in src) {
    if (src.hasOwnProperty(key) && key.substr(0, 2) !== '$$') {
      dst[key] = src[key];
    }
  }

  return dst;
}

@ngdoc function

@name angular.equals

@function

@description Determines if two objects or two values are equivalent. Supports value types, arrays and objects.

Two objects or values are considered equivalent if at least one of the following is true:

  • Both objects or values pass === comparison.
  • Both objects or values are of the same type and all of their properties pass === comparison.
  • Both values are NaN. (In JavasScript, NaN == NaN => false. But we consider two NaN as equal)

    During a property comparision, properties of function type and properties with names that begin with $ are ignored.

    Scope and DOMWindow objects are being compared only be identify (===).

    @param {*} o1 Object or value to compare.

    @param {*} o2 Object or value to compare.

    @returns {boolean} True if arguments are equal.

function equals(o1, o2) {
  if (o1 === o2) return true;
  if (o1 === null || o2 === null) return false;
  if (o1 !== o1 && o2 !== o2) return true; // NaN === NaN
  var t1 = typeof o1, t2 = typeof o2, length, key, keySet;
  if (t1 == t2) {
    if (t1 == 'object') {
      if (isArray(o1)) {
        if ((length = o1.length) == o2.length) {
          for(key=0; key<length; key++) {
            if (!equals(o1[key], o2[key])) return false;
          }
          return true;
        }
      } else if (isDate(o1)) {
        return isDate(o2) && o1.getTime() == o2.getTime();
      } else {
        if (isScope(o1) || isScope(o2) || isWindow(o1) || isWindow(o2)) return false;
        keySet = {};
        for(key in o1) {
          if (key.charAt(0) === '$' || isFunction(o1[key])) continue;
          if (!equals(o1[key], o2[key])) return false;
          keySet[key] = true;
        }
        for(key in o2) {
          if (!keySet[key] &&
              key.charAt(0) !== '$' &&
              o2[key] !== undefined &&
              !isFunction(o2[key])) return false;
        }
        return true;
      }
    }
  }
  return false;
}


function concat(array1, array2, index) {
  return array1.concat(slice.call(array2, index));
}

function sliceArgs(args, startIndex) {
  return slice.call(args, startIndex || 0);
}

@ngdoc function

@name angular.bind

@function

@description Returns a function which calls function fn bound to self (self becomes the this for fn). You can supply optional args that are are prebound to the function. This feature is also known as function currying.

@param {Object} self Context which fn should be evaluated in.

@param {function()} fn Function to be bound.

@param {...*} args Optional arguments to be prebound to the fn function call.

@returns {function()} Function that wraps the fn with all the specified bindings.

function bind(self, fn) {
  var curryArgs = arguments.length > 2 ? sliceArgs(arguments, 2) : [];
  if (isFunction(fn) && !(fn instanceof RegExp)) {
    return curryArgs.length
      ? function() {
          return arguments.length
            ? fn.apply(self, curryArgs.concat(slice.call(arguments, 0)))
            : fn.apply(self, curryArgs);
        }
      : function() {
          return arguments.length
            ? fn.apply(self, arguments)
            : fn.call(self);
        };
  } else {

in IE, native methods are not functions so they cannot be bound (note: they don't need to be)

    return fn;
  }
}


function toJsonReplacer(key, value) {
  var val = value;

  if (/^\$+/.test(key)) {
    val = undefined;
  } else if (isWindow(value)) {
    val = '$WINDOW';
  } else if (value &&  document === value) {
    val = '$DOCUMENT';
  } else if (isScope(value)) {
    val = '$SCOPE';
  }

  return val;
}

@ngdoc function

@name angular.toJson

@function

@description Serializes input into a JSON-formatted string.

@param {Object|Array|Date|string|number} obj Input to be serialized into JSON.

@param {boolean=} pretty If set to true, the JSON output will contain newlines and whitespace.

@returns {string} Jsonified string representing obj.

function toJson(obj, pretty) {
  return JSON.stringify(obj, toJsonReplacer, pretty ? '  ' : null);
}

@ngdoc function

@name angular.fromJson

@function

@description Deserializes a JSON string.

@param {string} json JSON string to deserialize.

@returns {Object|Array|Date|string|number} Deserialized thingy.

function fromJson(json) {
  return isString(json)
      ? JSON.parse(json)
      : json;
}


function toBoolean(value) {
  if (value && value.length !== 0) {
    var v = lowercase("" + value);
    value = !(v == 'f' || v == '0' || v == 'false' || v == 'no' || v == 'n' || v == '[]');
  } else {
    value = false;
  }
  return value;
}

@returns {string} Returns the string representation of the element.

function startingTag(element) {
  element = jqLite(element).clone();
  try {

turns out IE does not let you set .html() on elements which are not allowed to have children. So we just ignore it.

    element.html('');
  } catch(e) {}

As Per DOM Standards

  var TEXT_NODE = 3;
  var elemHtml = jqLite('<div>').append(element).html();
  try {
    return element[0].nodeType === TEXT_NODE ? lowercase(elemHtml) :
        elemHtml.
          match(/^(<[^>]+>)/)[1].
          replace(/^<([\w\-]+)/, function(match, nodeName) { return '<' + lowercase(nodeName); });
  } catch(e) {
    return lowercase(elemHtml);
  }

}

///////////////////////////////////////////////

Parses an escaped url query string into key-value pairs.

@returns Object.<(string|boolean)>

function parseKeyValue(//stringkeyValue) {
  var obj = {}, key_value, key;
  forEach((keyValue || "").split('&'), function(keyValue){
    if (keyValue) {
      key_value = keyValue.split('=');
      key = decodeURIComponent(key_value[0]);
      obj[key] = isDefined(key_value[1]) ? decodeURIComponent(key_value[1]) : true;
    }
  });
  return obj;
}

function toKeyValue(obj) {
  var parts = [];
  forEach(obj, function(value, key) {
    parts.push(encodeUriQuery(key, true) + (value === true ? '' : '=' + encodeUriQuery(value, true)));
  });
  return parts.length ? parts.join('&') : '';
}

We need our custom method because encodeURIComponent is too agressive and doesn't follow http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt with regards to the character set (pchar) allowed in path segments: segment = pchar pchar = unreserved / pct-encoded / sub-delims / ":" / "@" pct-encoded = "%" HEXDIG HEXDIG unreserved = ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" sub-delims = "!" / "$" / "&" / "'" / "(" / ")" / "" / "+" / "," / ";" / "="

function encodeUriSegment(val) {
  return encodeUriQuery(val, true).
             replace(/%26/gi, '&').
             replace(/%3D/gi, '=').
             replace(/%2B/gi, '+');
}

This method is intended for encoding key or value parts of query component. We need a custom method becuase encodeURIComponent is too agressive and encodes stuff that doesn't have to be encoded per http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986: query = ( pchar / "/" / "?" ) pchar = unreserved / pct-encoded / sub-delims / ":" / "@" unreserved = ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" pct-encoded = "%" HEXDIG HEXDIG sub-delims = "!" / "$" / "&" / "'" / "(" / ")" / "" / "+" / "," / ";" / "="

function encodeUriQuery(val, pctEncodeSpaces) {
  return encodeURIComponent(val).
             replace(/%40/gi, '@').
             replace(/%3A/gi, ':').
             replace(/%24/g, '$').
             replace(/%2C/gi, ',').
             replace(/%20/g, (pctEncodeSpaces ? '%20' : '+'));
}

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngApp

@element ANY

@param {angular.Module} ngApp an optional application {@link angular.module module} name to load.

@description

Use this directive to auto-bootstrap on application. Only one directive can be used per HTML document. The directive designates the root of the application and is typically placed at the root of the page.

In the example below if the ngApp directive would not be placed on the html element then the document would not be compiled and the {{ 1+2 }} would not be resolved to 3.

ngApp is the easiest way to bootstrap an application.

<doc:example> <doc:source> I can add: 1 + 2 = {{ 1+2 }} </doc:source> </doc:example>

function angularInit(element, bootstrap) {
  var elements = [element],
      appElement,
      module,
      names = ['ng:app', 'ng-app', 'x-ng-app', 'data-ng-app'],
      NG_APP_CLASS_REGEXP = /\sng[:\-]app(:\s*([\w\d_]+);?)?\s/;

  function append(element) {
    element && elements.push(element);
  }

  forEach(names, function(name) {
    names[name] = true;
    append(document.getElementById(name));
    name = name.replace(':', '\\:');
    if (element.querySelectorAll) {
      forEach(element.querySelectorAll('.' + name), append);
      forEach(element.querySelectorAll('.' + name + '\\:'), append);
      forEach(element.querySelectorAll('[' + name + ']'), append);
    }
  });

  forEach(elements, function(element) {
    if (!appElement) {
      var className = ' ' + element.className + ' ';
      var match = NG_APP_CLASS_REGEXP.exec(className);
      if (match) {
        appElement = element;
        module = (match[2] || '').replace(/\s+/g, ',');
      } else {
        forEach(element.attributes, function(attr) {
          if (!appElement && names[attr.name]) {
            appElement = element;
            module = attr.value;
          }
        });
      }
    }
  });
  if (appElement) {
    bootstrap(appElement, module ? [module] : []);
  }
}

@ngdoc function

@name angular.bootstrap

@description Use this function to manually start up angular application.

See: {@link guide/bootstrap Bootstrap}

@param {Element} element DOM element which is the root of angular application.

@param {Array<String|Function>=} modules an array of module declarations. See: {@link angular.module modules}

@returns {AUTO.$injector} Returns the newly created injector for this app.

function bootstrap(element, modules) {
  var resumeBootstrapInternal = function() {
    element = jqLite(element);
    modules = modules || [];
    modules.unshift(['$provide', function($provide) {
      $provide.value('$rootElement', element);
    }]);
    modules.unshift('ng');
    var injector = createInjector(modules);
    injector.invoke(['$rootScope', '$rootElement', '$compile', '$injector',
       function(scope, element, compile, injector) {
        scope.$apply(function() {
          element.data('$injector', injector);
          compile(element)(scope);
        });
      }]
    );
    return injector;
  };

  var NG_DEFER_BOOTSTRAP = /^NG_DEFER_BOOTSTRAP!/;

  if (window && !NG_DEFER_BOOTSTRAP.test(window.name)) {
    return resumeBootstrapInternal();
  }

  window.name = window.name.replace(NG_DEFER_BOOTSTRAP, '');
  angular.resumeBootstrap = function(extraModules) {
    forEach(extraModules, function(module) {
      modules.push(module);
    });
    resumeBootstrapInternal();
  };
}

var SNAKE_CASE_REGEXP = /[A-Z]/g;
function snake_case(name, separator){
  separator = separator || '_';
  return name.replace(SNAKE_CASE_REGEXP, function(letter, pos) {
    return (pos ? separator : '') + letter.toLowerCase();
  });
}

function bindJQuery() {

bind to jQuery if present;

  jQuery = window.jQuery;

reset to jQuery or default to us.

  if (jQuery) {
    jqLite = jQuery;
    extend(jQuery.fn, {
      scope: JQLitePrototype.scope,
      controller: JQLitePrototype.controller,
      injector: JQLitePrototype.injector,
      inheritedData: JQLitePrototype.inheritedData
    });
    JQLitePatchJQueryRemove('remove', true);
    JQLitePatchJQueryRemove('empty');
    JQLitePatchJQueryRemove('html');
  } else {
    jqLite = JQLite;
  }
  angular.element = jqLite;
}

throw error of the argument is falsy.

function assertArg(arg, name, reason) {
  if (!arg) {
    throw new Error("Argument '" + (name || '?') + "' is " + (reason || "required"));
  }
  return arg;
}

function assertArgFn(arg, name, acceptArrayAnnotation) {
  if (acceptArrayAnnotation && isArray(arg)) {
      arg = arg[arg.length - 1];
  }

  assertArg(isFunction(arg), name, 'not a function, got ' +
      (arg && typeof arg == 'object' ? arg.constructor.name || 'Object' : typeof arg));
  return arg;
}

@ngdoc interface

@name angular.Module

@description

Interface for configuring angular {@link angular.module modules}.

function setupModuleLoader(window) {

  function ensure(obj, name, factory) {
    return obj[name] || (obj[name] = factory());
  }

  return ensure(ensure(window, 'angular', Object), 'module', function() {

@type {Object.<string, angular.Module>}

    var modules = {};

@ngdoc function

@name angular.module

@description

The angular.module is a global place for creating and registering Angular modules. All modules (angular core or 3rd party) that should be available to an application must be registered using this mechanism.

# Module

A module is a collocation of services, directives, filters, and configuration information. Module is used to configure the {@link AUTO.$injector $injector}.

<pre> // Create a new module var myModule = angular.module('myModule', []);

// register a new service myModule.value('appName', 'MyCoolApp');

// configure existing services inside initialization blocks. myModule.config(function($locationProvider) { // Configure existing providers $locationProvider.hashPrefix('!'); }); </pre>

Then you can create an injector and load your modules like this:

<pre> var injector = angular.injector(['ng', 'MyModule']) </pre>

However it's more likely that you'll just use {@link ng.directive:ngApp ngApp} or {@link angular.bootstrap} to simplify this process for you.

@param {!string} name The name of the module to create or retrieve.

@param {Array.<string>=} requires If specified then new module is being created. If unspecified then the the module is being retrieved for further configuration.

@param {Function} configFn Optional configuration function for the module. Same as {@link angular.Module#config Module#config()}.

@returns {module} new module with the {@link angular.Module} api.

    return function module(name, requires, configFn) {
      if (requires && modules.hasOwnProperty(name)) {
        modules[name] = null;
      }
      return ensure(modules, name, function() {
        if (!requires) {
          throw Error('No module: ' + name);
        }

@type {!Array.<Array.<*>>}

        var invokeQueue = [];

@type {!Array.<Function>}

        var runBlocks = [];

        var config = invokeLater('$injector', 'invoke');

@type {angular.Module}

        var moduleInstance = {

Private state

          _invokeQueue: invokeQueue,
          _runBlocks: runBlocks,

@ngdoc property

@name angular.Module#requires

@propertyOf angular.Module

@returns {Array.<string>} List of module names which must be loaded before this module.

@description Holds the list of modules which the injector will load before the current module is loaded.

          requires: requires,

@ngdoc property

@name angular.Module#name

@propertyOf angular.Module

@returns {string} Name of the module.

@description

          name: name,

@ngdoc method

@name angular.Module#provider

@methodOf angular.Module

@param {string} name service name

@param {Function} providerType Construction function for creating new instance of the service.

@description See {@link AUTO.$provide#provider $provide.provider()}.

          provider: invokeLater('$provide', 'provider'),

@ngdoc method

@name angular.Module#factory

@methodOf angular.Module

@param {string} name service name

@param {Function} providerFunction Function for creating new instance of the service.

@description See {@link AUTO.$provide#factory $provide.factory()}.

          factory: invokeLater('$provide', 'factory'),

@ngdoc method

@name angular.Module#service

@methodOf angular.Module

@param {string} name service name

@param {Function} constructor A constructor function that will be instantiated.

@description See {@link AUTO.$provide#service $provide.service()}.

          service: invokeLater('$provide', 'service'),

@ngdoc method

@name angular.Module#value

@methodOf angular.Module

@param {string} name service name

@param {*} object Service instance object.

@description See {@link AUTO.$provide#value $provide.value()}.

          value: invokeLater('$provide', 'value'),

@ngdoc method

@name angular.Module#constant

@methodOf angular.Module

@param {string} name constant name

@param {*} object Constant value.

@description Because the constant are fixed, they get applied before other provide methods. See {@link AUTO.$provide#constant $provide.constant()}.

          constant: invokeLater('$provide', 'constant', 'unshift'),

@ngdoc method

@name angular.Module#filter

@methodOf angular.Module

@param {string} name Filter name.

@param {Function} filterFactory Factory function for creating new instance of filter.

@description See {@link ng.$filterProvider#register $filterProvider.register()}.

          filter: invokeLater('$filterProvider', 'register'),

@ngdoc method

@name angular.Module#controller

@methodOf angular.Module

@param {string} name Controller name.

@param {Function} constructor Controller constructor function.

@description See {@link ng.$controllerProvider#register $controllerProvider.register()}.

          controller: invokeLater('$controllerProvider', 'register'),

@ngdoc method

@name angular.Module#directive

@methodOf angular.Module

@param {string} name directive name

@param {Function} directiveFactory Factory function for creating new instance of directives.

@description See {@link ng.$compileProvider#directive $compileProvider.directive()}.

          directive: invokeLater('$compileProvider', 'directive'),

@ngdoc method

@name angular.Module#config

@methodOf angular.Module

@param {Function} configFn Execute this function on module load. Useful for service configuration.

@description Use this method to register work which needs to be performed on module loading.

          config: config,

@ngdoc method

@name angular.Module#run

@methodOf angular.Module

@param {Function} initializationFn Execute this function after injector creation. Useful for application initialization.

@description Use this method to register work which should be performed when the injector is done loading all modules.

          run: function(block) {
            runBlocks.push(block);
            return this;
          }
        };

        if (configFn) {
          config(configFn);
        }

        return  moduleInstance;

@param {string} provider

@param {string} method

@param {String=} insertMethod

@returns {angular.Module}

        function invokeLater(provider, method, insertMethod) {
          return function() {
            invokeQueue[insertMethod || 'push']([provider, method, arguments]);
            return moduleInstance;
          }
        }
      });
    };
  });

}

@ngdoc property

@name angular.version

@description An object that contains information about the current AngularJS version. This object has the following properties:

  • full{string} – Full version string, such as "0.9.18".
  • major{number} – Major version number, such as "0".
  • minor{number} – Minor version number, such as "9".
  • dot{number} – Dot version number, such as "18".
  • codeName{string} – Code name of the release, such as "jiggling-armfat".
var version = {
  full: '1.0.6',    // all of these placeholder strings will be replaced by grunt's
  major: 1,    // package task
  minor: 0,
  dot: 6,
  codeName: 'universal-irreversibility'
};


function publishExternalAPI(angular){
  extend(angular, {
    'bootstrap': bootstrap,
    'copy': copy,
    'extend': extend,
    'equals': equals,
    'element': jqLite,
    'forEach': forEach,
    'injector': createInjector,
    'noop':noop,
    'bind':bind,
    'toJson': toJson,
    'fromJson': fromJson,
    'identity':identity,
    'isUndefined': isUndefined,
    'isDefined': isDefined,
    'isString': isString,
    'isFunction': isFunction,
    'isObject': isObject,
    'isNumber': isNumber,
    'isElement': isElement,
    'isArray': isArray,
    'version': version,
    'isDate': isDate,
    'lowercase': lowercase,
    'uppercase': uppercase,
    'callbacks': {counter: 0}
  });

  angularModule = setupModuleLoader(window);
  try {
    angularModule('ngLocale');
  } catch (e) {
    angularModule('ngLocale', []).provider('$locale', $LocaleProvider);
  }

  angularModule('ng', ['ngLocale'], ['$provide',
    function ngModule($provide) {
      $provide.provider('$compile', $CompileProvider).
        directive({
            a: htmlAnchorDirective,
            input: inputDirective,
            textarea: inputDirective,
            form: formDirective,
            script: scriptDirective,
            select: selectDirective,
            style: styleDirective,
            option: optionDirective,
            ngBind: ngBindDirective,
            ngBindHtmlUnsafe: ngBindHtmlUnsafeDirective,
            ngBindTemplate: ngBindTemplateDirective,
            ngClass: ngClassDirective,
            ngClassEven: ngClassEvenDirective,
            ngClassOdd: ngClassOddDirective,
            ngCsp: ngCspDirective,
            ngCloak: ngCloakDirective,
            ngController: ngControllerDirective,
            ngForm: ngFormDirective,
            ngHide: ngHideDirective,
            ngInclude: ngIncludeDirective,
            ngInit: ngInitDirective,
            ngNonBindable: ngNonBindableDirective,
            ngPluralize: ngPluralizeDirective,
            ngRepeat: ngRepeatDirective,
            ngShow: ngShowDirective,
            ngSubmit: ngSubmitDirective,
            ngStyle: ngStyleDirective,
            ngSwitch: ngSwitchDirective,
            ngSwitchWhen: ngSwitchWhenDirective,
            ngSwitchDefault: ngSwitchDefaultDirective,
            ngOptions: ngOptionsDirective,
            ngView: ngViewDirective,
            ngTransclude: ngTranscludeDirective,
            ngModel: ngModelDirective,
            ngList: ngListDirective,
            ngChange: ngChangeDirective,
            required: requiredDirective,
            ngRequired: requiredDirective,
            ngValue: ngValueDirective
        }).
        directive(ngAttributeAliasDirectives).
        directive(ngEventDirectives);
      $provide.provider({
        $anchorScroll: $AnchorScrollProvider,
        $browser: $BrowserProvider,
        $cacheFactory: $CacheFactoryProvider,
        $controller: $ControllerProvider,
        $document: $DocumentProvider,
        $exceptionHandler: $ExceptionHandlerProvider,
        $filter: $FilterProvider,
        $interpolate: $InterpolateProvider,
        $http: $HttpProvider,
        $httpBackend: $HttpBackendProvider,
        $location: $LocationProvider,
        $log: $LogProvider,
        $parse: $ParseProvider,
        $route: $RouteProvider,
        $routeParams: $RouteParamsProvider,
        $rootScope: $RootScopeProvider,
        $q: $QProvider,
        $sniffer: $SnifferProvider,
        $templateCache: $TemplateCacheProvider,
        $timeout: $TimeoutProvider,
        $window: $WindowProvider
      });
    }
  ]);
}

//////////////////////////////// JQLite ////////////////////////////////

@ngdoc function

@name angular.element

@function

@description Wraps a raw DOM element or HTML string as a jQuery element. angular.element can be either an alias for jQuery function, if jQuery is available, or a function that wraps the element or string in Angular's jQuery lite implementation (commonly referred to as jqLite).

Real jQuery always takes precedence over jqLite, provided it was loaded before DOMContentLoaded event fired.

jqLite is a tiny, API-compatible subset of jQuery that allows Angular to manipulate the DOM. jqLite implements only the most commonly needed functionality within a very small footprint, so only a subset of the jQuery API - methods, arguments and invocation styles - are supported.

Note: All element references in Angular are always wrapped with jQuery or jqLite; they are never raw DOM references.

## Angular's jQuery lite provides the following methods:

var jqCache = JQLite.cache = {},
    jqName = JQLite.expando = 'ng-' + new Date().getTime(),
    jqId = 1,
    addEventListenerFn = (window.document.addEventListener
      ? function(element, type, fn) {element.addEventListener(type, fn, false);}
      : function(element, type, fn) {element.attachEvent('on' + type, fn);}),
    removeEventListenerFn = (window.document.removeEventListener
      ? function(element, type, fn) {element.removeEventListener(type, fn, false); }
      : function(element, type, fn) {element.detachEvent('on' + type, fn); });

function jqNextId() { return ++jqId; }


var SPECIAL_CHARS_REGEXP = /([\:\-\_]+(.))/g;
var MOZ_HACK_REGEXP = /^moz([A-Z])/;

Converts snake_case to camelCase. Also there is special case for Moz prefix starting with upper case letter.

@param name Name to normalize

function camelCase(name) {
  return name.
    replace(SPECIAL_CHARS_REGEXP, function(_, separator, letter, offset) {
      return offset ? letter.toUpperCase() : letter;
    }).
    replace(MOZ_HACK_REGEXP, 'Moz$1');
}

/////////////////////////////////////////// jQuery mutation patch

In conjunction with bindJQuery intercepts all jQuery's DOM destruction apis and fires a $destroy event on all DOM nodes being removed.

///////////////////////////////////////////

function JQLitePatchJQueryRemove(name, dispatchThis) {
  var originalJqFn = jQuery.fn[name];
  originalJqFn = originalJqFn.$original || originalJqFn;
  removePatch.$original = originalJqFn;
  jQuery.fn[name] = removePatch;

  function removePatch() {
    var list = [this],
        fireEvent = dispatchThis,
        set, setIndex, setLength,
        element, childIndex, childLength, children,
        fns, events;

    while(list.length) {
      set = list.shift();
      for(setIndex = 0, setLength = set.length; setIndex < setLength; setIndex++) {
        element = jqLite(set[setIndex]);
        if (fireEvent) {
          element.triggerHandler('$destroy');
        } else {
          fireEvent = !fireEvent;
        }
        for(childIndex = 0, childLength = (children = element.children()).length;
            childIndex < childLength;
            childIndex++) {
          list.push(jQuery(children[childIndex]));
        }
      }
    }
    return originalJqFn.apply(this, arguments);
  }
}

///////////////////////////////////////////

function JQLite(element) {
  if (element instanceof JQLite) {
    return element;
  }
  if (!(this instanceof JQLite)) {
    if (isString(element) && element.charAt(0) != '<') {
      throw Error('selectors not implemented');
    }
    return new JQLite(element);
  }

  if (isString(element)) {
    var div = document.createElement('div');

Read about the NoScope elements here: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms533897(VS.85).aspx

    div.innerHTML = '<div>&#160;</div>' + element; // IE insanity to make NoScope elements work!
    div.removeChild(div.firstChild); // remove the superfluous div
    JQLiteAddNodes(this, div.childNodes);
    this.remove(); // detach the elements from the temporary DOM div.
  } else {
    JQLiteAddNodes(this, element);
  }
}

function JQLiteClone(element) {
  return element.cloneNode(true);
}

function JQLiteDealoc(element){
  JQLiteRemoveData(element);
  for ( var i = 0, children = element.childNodes || []; i < children.length; i++) {
    JQLiteDealoc(children[i]);
  }
}

function JQLiteUnbind(element, type, fn) {
  var events = JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'events'),
      handle = JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'handle');

  if (!handle) return; //no listeners registered

  if (isUndefined(type)) {
    forEach(events, function(eventHandler, type) {
      removeEventListenerFn(element, type, eventHandler);
      delete events[type];
    });
  } else {
    if (isUndefined(fn)) {
      removeEventListenerFn(element, type, events[type]);
      delete events[type];
    } else {
      arrayRemove(events[type], fn);
    }
  }
}

function JQLiteRemoveData(element) {
  var expandoId = element[jqName],
      expandoStore = jqCache[expandoId];

  if (expandoStore) {
    if (expandoStore.handle) {
      expandoStore.events.$destroy && expandoStore.handle({}, '$destroy');
      JQLiteUnbind(element);
    }
    delete jqCache[expandoId];
    element[jqName] = undefined; // ie does not allow deletion of attributes on elements.
  }
}

function JQLiteExpandoStore(element, key, value) {
  var expandoId = element[jqName],
      expandoStore = jqCache[expandoId || -1];

  if (isDefined(value)) {
    if (!expandoStore) {
      element[jqName] = expandoId = jqNextId();
      expandoStore = jqCache[expandoId] = {};
    }
    expandoStore[key] = value;
  } else {
    return expandoStore && expandoStore[key];
  }
}

function JQLiteData(element, key, value) {
  var data = JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'data'),
      isSetter = isDefined(value),
      keyDefined = !isSetter && isDefined(key),
      isSimpleGetter = keyDefined && !isObject(key);

  if (!data && !isSimpleGetter) {
    JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'data', data = {});
  }

  if (isSetter) {
    data[key] = value;
  } else {
    if (keyDefined) {
      if (isSimpleGetter) {

don't create data in this case.

        return data && data[key];
      } else {
        extend(data, key);
      }
    } else {
      return data;
    }
  }
}

function JQLiteHasClass(element, selector) {
  return ((" " + element.className + " ").replace(/[\n\t]/g, " ").
      indexOf( " " + selector + " " ) > -1);
}

function JQLiteRemoveClass(element, cssClasses) {
  if (cssClasses) {
    forEach(cssClasses.split(' '), function(cssClass) {
      element.className = trim(
          (" " + element.className + " ")
          .replace(/[\n\t]/g, " ")
          .replace(" " + trim(cssClass) + " ", " ")
      );
    });
  }
}

function JQLiteAddClass(element, cssClasses) {
  if (cssClasses) {
    forEach(cssClasses.split(' '), function(cssClass) {
      if (!JQLiteHasClass(element, cssClass)) {
        element.className = trim(element.className + ' ' + trim(cssClass));
      }
    });
  }
}

function JQLiteAddNodes(root, elements) {
  if (elements) {
    elements = (!elements.nodeName && isDefined(elements.length) && !isWindow(elements))
      ? elements
      : [ elements ];
    for(var i=0; i < elements.length; i++) {
      root.push(elements[i]);
    }
  }
}

function JQLiteController(element, name) {
  return JQLiteInheritedData(element, '$' + (name || 'ngController' ) + 'Controller');
}

function JQLiteInheritedData(element, name, value) {
  element = jqLite(element);

if element is the document object work with the html element instead this makes $(document).scope() possible

  if(element[0].nodeType == 9) {
    element = element.find('html');
  }

  while (element.length) {
    if (value = element.data(name)) return value;
    element = element.parent();
  }
}

//////////////////////////////////////// Functions which are declared directly. ////////////////////////////////////////

var JQLitePrototype = JQLite.prototype = {
  ready: function(fn) {
    var fired = false;

    function trigger() {
      if (fired) return;
      fired = true;
      fn();
    }

    this.bind('DOMContentLoaded', trigger); // works for modern browsers and IE9

we can not use jqLite since we are not done loading and jQuery could be loaded later.

    JQLite(window).bind('load', trigger); // fallback to window.onload for others
  },
  toString: function() {
    var value = [];
    forEach(this, function(e){ value.push('' + e);});
    return '[' + value.join(', ') + ']';
  },

  eq: function(index) {
      return (index >= 0) ? jqLite(this[index]) : jqLite(this[this.length + index]);
  },

  length: 0,
  push: push,
  sort: [].sort,
  splice: [].splice
};

//////////////////////////////////////// Functions iterating getter/setters. these functions return self on setter and value on get. ////////////////////////////////////////

var BOOLEAN_ATTR = {};
forEach('multiple,selected,checked,disabled,readOnly,required'.split(','), function(value) {
  BOOLEAN_ATTR[lowercase(value)] = value;
});
var BOOLEAN_ELEMENTS = {};
forEach('input,select,option,textarea,button,form'.split(','), function(value) {
  BOOLEAN_ELEMENTS[uppercase(value)] = true;
});

function getBooleanAttrName(element, name) {

check dom last since we will most likely fail on name

  var booleanAttr = BOOLEAN_ATTR[name.toLowerCase()];

booleanAttr is here twice to minimize DOM access

  return booleanAttr && BOOLEAN_ELEMENTS[element.nodeName] && booleanAttr;
}

forEach({
  data: JQLiteData,
  inheritedData: JQLiteInheritedData,

  scope: function(element) {
    return JQLiteInheritedData(element, '$scope');
  },

  controller: JQLiteController ,

  injector: function(element) {
    return JQLiteInheritedData(element, '$injector');
  },

  removeAttr: function(element,name) {
    element.removeAttribute(name);
  },

  hasClass: JQLiteHasClass,

  css: function(element, name, value) {
    name = camelCase(name);

    if (isDefined(value)) {
      element.style[name] = value;
    } else {
      var val;

      if (msie <= 8) {

this is some IE specific weirdness that jQuery 1.6.4 does not sure why

        val = element.currentStyle && element.currentStyle[name];
        if (val === '') val = 'auto';
      }

      val = val || element.style[name];

      if (msie <= 8) {

jquery weirdness :-/

        val = (val === '') ? undefined : val;
      }

      return  val;
    }
  },

  attr: function(element, name, value){
    var lowercasedName = lowercase(name);
    if (BOOLEAN_ATTR[lowercasedName]) {
      if (isDefined(value)) {
        if (!!value) {
          element[name] = true;
          element.setAttribute(name, lowercasedName);
        } else {
          element[name] = false;
          element.removeAttribute(lowercasedName);
        }
      } else {
        return (element[name] ||
                 (element.attributes.getNamedItem(name)|| noop).specified)
               ? lowercasedName
               : undefined;
      }
    } else if (isDefined(value)) {
      element.setAttribute(name, value);
    } else if (element.getAttribute) {

the extra argument "2" is to get the right thing for a.href in IE, see jQuery code some elements (e.g. Document) don't have get attribute, so return undefined

      var ret = element.getAttribute(name, 2);

normalize non-existing attributes to undefined (as jQuery)

      return ret === null ? undefined : ret;
    }
  },

  prop: function(element, name, value) {
    if (isDefined(value)) {
      element[name] = value;
    } else {
      return element[name];
    }
  },

  text: extend((msie < 9)
      ? function(element, value) {
        if (element.nodeType == 1 // Element) {
          if (isUndefined(value))
            return element.innerText;
          element.innerText = value;
        } else {
          if (isUndefined(value))
            return element.nodeValue;
          element.nodeValue = value;
        }
      }
      : function(element, value) {
        if (isUndefined(value)) {
          return element.textContent;
        }
        element.textContent = value;
      }, {$dv:''}),

  val: function(element, value) {
    if (isUndefined(value)) {
      return element.value;
    }
    element.value = value;
  },

  html: function(element, value) {
    if (isUndefined(value)) {
      return element.innerHTML;
    }
    for (var i = 0, childNodes = element.childNodes; i < childNodes.length; i++) {
      JQLiteDealoc(childNodes[i]);
    }
    element.innerHTML = value;
  }
}, function(fn, name){

Properties: writes return selection, reads return first value

  JQLite.prototype[name] = function(arg1, arg2) {
    var i, key;

JQLiteHasClass has only two arguments, but is a getter-only fn, so we need to special-case it in a way that survives minification.

    if (((fn.length == 2 && (fn !== JQLiteHasClass && fn !== JQLiteController)) ? arg1 : arg2) === undefined) {
      if (isObject(arg1)) {

we are a write, but the object properties are the key/values

        for(i=0; i < this.length; i++) {
          if (fn === JQLiteData) {

data() takes the whole object in jQuery

            fn(this[i], arg1);
          } else {
            for (key in arg1) {
              fn(this[i], key, arg1[key]);
            }
          }
        }

return self for chaining

        return this;
      } else {

we are a read, so read the first child.

        if (this.length)
          return fn(this[0], arg1, arg2);
      }
    } else {

we are a write, so apply to all children

      for(i=0; i < this.length; i++) {
        fn(this[i], arg1, arg2);
      }

return self for chaining

      return this;
    }
    return fn.$dv;
  };
});

function createEventHandler(element, events) {
  var eventHandler = function (event, type) {
    if (!event.preventDefault) {
      event.preventDefault = function() {
        event.returnValue = false; //ie
      };
    }

    if (!event.stopPropagation) {
      event.stopPropagation = function() {
        event.cancelBubble = true; //ie
      };
    }

    if (!event.target) {
      event.target = event.srcElement || document;
    }

    if (isUndefined(event.defaultPrevented)) {
      var prevent = event.preventDefault;
      event.preventDefault = function() {
        event.defaultPrevented = true;
        prevent.call(event);
      };
      event.defaultPrevented = false;
    }

    event.isDefaultPrevented = function() {
      return event.defaultPrevented;
    };

    forEach(events[type || event.type], function(fn) {
      fn.call(element, event);
    });

Remove monkey-patched methods (IE), as they would cause memory leaks in IE8.

    if (msie <= 8) {

IE7/8 does not allow to delete property on native object

      event.preventDefault = null;
      event.stopPropagation = null;
      event.isDefaultPrevented = null;
    } else {

It shouldn't affect normal browsers (native methods are defined on prototype).

      delete event.preventDefault;
      delete event.stopPropagation;
      delete event.isDefaultPrevented;
    }
  };
  eventHandler.elem = element;
  return eventHandler;
}

//////////////////////////////////////// Functions iterating traversal. These functions chain results into a single selector. ////////////////////////////////////////

forEach({
  removeData: JQLiteRemoveData,

  dealoc: JQLiteDealoc,

  bind: function bindFn(element, type, fn){
    var events = JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'events'),
        handle = JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'handle');

    if (!events) JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'events', events = {});
    if (!handle) JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'handle', handle = createEventHandler(element, events));

    forEach(type.split(' '), function(type){
      var eventFns = events[type];

      if (!eventFns) {
        if (type == 'mouseenter' || type == 'mouseleave') {
          var counter = 0;

          events.mouseenter = [];
          events.mouseleave = [];

          bindFn(element, 'mouseover', function(event) {
            counter++;
            if (counter == 1) {
              handle(event, 'mouseenter');
            }
          });
          bindFn(element, 'mouseout', function(event) {
            counter --;
            if (counter == 0) {
              handle(event, 'mouseleave');
            }
          });
        } else {
          addEventListenerFn(element, type, handle);
          events[type] = [];
        }
        eventFns = events[type]
      }
      eventFns.push(fn);
    });
  },

  unbind: JQLiteUnbind,

  replaceWith: function(element, replaceNode) {
    var index, parent = element.parentNode;
    JQLiteDealoc(element);
    forEach(new JQLite(replaceNode), function(node){
      if (index) {
        parent.insertBefore(node, index.nextSibling);
      } else {
        parent.replaceChild(node, element);
      }
      index = node;
    });
  },

  children: function(element) {
    var children = [];
    forEach(element.childNodes, function(element){
      if (element.nodeType === 1)
        children.push(element);
    });
    return children;
  },

  contents: function(element) {
    return element.childNodes || [];
  },

  append: function(element, node) {
    forEach(new JQLite(node), function(child){
      if (element.nodeType === 1)
        element.appendChild(child);
    });
  },

  prepend: function(element, node) {
    if (element.nodeType === 1) {
      var index = element.firstChild;
      forEach(new JQLite(node), function(child){
        if (index) {
          element.insertBefore(child, index);
        } else {
          element.appendChild(child);
          index = child;
        }
      });
    }
  },

  wrap: function(element, wrapNode) {
    wrapNode = jqLite(wrapNode)[0];
    var parent = element.parentNode;
    if (parent) {
      parent.replaceChild(wrapNode, element);
    }
    wrapNode.appendChild(element);
  },

  remove: function(element) {
    JQLiteDealoc(element);
    var parent = element.parentNode;
    if (parent) parent.removeChild(element);
  },

  after: function(element, newElement) {
    var index = element, parent = element.parentNode;
    forEach(new JQLite(newElement), function(node){
      parent.insertBefore(node, index.nextSibling);
      index = node;
    });
  },

  addClass: JQLiteAddClass,
  removeClass: JQLiteRemoveClass,

  toggleClass: function(element, selector, condition) {
    if (isUndefined(condition)) {
      condition = !JQLiteHasClass(element, selector);
    }
    (condition ? JQLiteAddClass : JQLiteRemoveClass)(element, selector);
  },

  parent: function(element) {
    var parent = element.parentNode;
    return parent && parent.nodeType !== 11 ? parent : null;
  },

  next: function(element) {
    if (element.nextElementSibling) {
      return element.nextElementSibling;
    }

IE8 doesn't have nextElementSibling

    var elm = element.nextSibling;
    while (elm != null && elm.nodeType !== 1) {
      elm = elm.nextSibling;
    }
    return elm;
  },

  find: function(element, selector) {
    return element.getElementsByTagName(selector);
  },

  clone: JQLiteClone,

  triggerHandler: function(element, eventName) {
    var eventFns = (JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'events') || {})[eventName];

    forEach(eventFns, function(fn) {
      fn.call(element, null);
    });
  }
}, function(fn, name){

chaining functions

  JQLite.prototype[name] = function(arg1, arg2) {
    var value;
    for(var i=0; i < this.length; i++) {
      if (value == undefined) {
        value = fn(this[i], arg1, arg2);
        if (value !== undefined) {

any function which returns a value needs to be wrapped

          value = jqLite(value);
        }
      } else {
        JQLiteAddNodes(value, fn(this[i], arg1, arg2));
      }
    }
    return value == undefined ? this : value;
  };
});

Computes a hash of an 'obj'. Hash of a: string is string number is number as string object is either result of calling $$hashKey function on the object or uniquely generated id, that is also assigned to the $$hashKey property of the object.

@param obj

@returns {string} hash string such that the same input will have the same hash string. The resulting string key is in 'type:hashKey' format.

function hashKey(obj) {
  var objType = typeof obj,
      key;

  if (objType == 'object' && obj !== null) {
    if (typeof (key = obj.$$hashKey) == 'function') {

must invoke on object to keep the right this

      key = obj.$$hashKey();
    } else if (key === undefined) {
      key = obj.$$hashKey = nextUid();
    }
  } else {
    key = obj;
  }

  return objType + ':' + key;
}

HashMap which can use objects as keys

function HashMap(array){
  forEach(array, this.put, this);
}
HashMap.prototype = {

Store key value pair

@param key key to store can be any type

@param value value to store can be any type

  put: function(key, value) {
    this[hashKey(key)] = value;
  },

@param key

@returns the value for the key

  get: function(key) {
    return this[hashKey(key)];
  },

Remove the key/value pair

@param key

  remove: function(key) {
    var value = this[key = hashKey(key)];
    delete this[key];
    return value;
  }
};

A map where multiple values can be added to the same key such that they form a queue.

@returns {HashQueueMap}

function HashQueueMap() {}
HashQueueMap.prototype = {

Same as array push, but using an array as the value for the hash

  push: function(key, value) {
    var array = this[key = hashKey(key)];
    if (!array) {
      this[key] = [value];
    } else {
      array.push(value);
    }
  },

Same as array shift, but using an array as the value for the hash

  shift: function(key) {
    var array = this[key = hashKey(key)];
    if (array) {
      if (array.length == 1) {
        delete this[key];
        return array[0];
      } else {
        return array.shift();
      }
    }
  },

return the first item without deleting it

  peek: function(key) {
    var array = this[hashKey(key)];
    if (array) {
    return array[0];
    }
  }
};

@ngdoc function

@name angular.injector

@function

@description Creates an injector function that can be used for retrieving services as well as for dependency injection (see {@link guide/di dependency injection}).

@param {Array.<string|Function>} modules A list of module functions or their aliases. See {@link angular.module}. The ng module must be explicitly added.

@returns {function()} Injector function. See {@link AUTO.$injector $injector}.

@example Typical usage <pre> // create an injector var $injector = angular.injector(['ng']);

// use the injector to kick off your application // use the type inference to auto inject arguments, or use implicit injection $injector.invoke(function($rootScope, $compile, $document){ $compile($document)($rootScope); $rootScope.$digest(); }); </pre>

@ngdoc overview

@name AUTO

@description

Implicit module which gets automatically added to each {@link AUTO.$injector $injector}.

var FN_ARGS = /^function\s*[^\(]*\(\s*([^\)]*)\)/m;
var FN_ARG_SPLIT = /,/;
var FN_ARG = /^\s*(_?)(\S+?)\1\s*$/;
var STRIP_COMMENTS = /((\/\/.*$)|(\/\*[\s\S]*?\*\/))/mg;
function annotate(fn) {
  var $inject,
      fnText,
      argDecl,
      last;

  if (typeof fn == 'function') {
    if (!($inject = fn.$inject)) {
      $inject = [];
      fnText = fn.toString().replace(STRIP_COMMENTS, '');
      argDecl = fnText.match(FN_ARGS);
      forEach(argDecl[1].split(FN_ARG_SPLIT), function(arg){
        arg.replace(FN_ARG, function(all, underscore, name){
          $inject.push(name);
        });
      });
      fn.$inject = $inject;
    }
  } else if (isArray(fn)) {
    last = fn.length - 1;
    assertArgFn(fn[last], 'fn')
    $inject = fn.slice(0, last);
  } else {
    assertArgFn(fn, 'fn', true);
  }
  return $inject;
}

/////////////////////////////////////

@ngdoc object

@name AUTO.$injector

@function

@description

$injector is used to retrieve object instances as defined by {@link AUTO.$provide provider}, instantiate types, invoke methods, and load modules.

The following always holds true:

<pre> var $injector = angular.injector(); expect($injector.get('$injector')).toBe($injector); expect($injector.invoke(function($injector){ return $injector; }).toBe($injector); </pre>

# Injection Function Annotation

JavaScript does not have annotations, and annotations are needed for dependency injection. The following ways are all valid way of annotating function with injection arguments and are equivalent.

<pre> // inferred (only works if code not minified/obfuscated) $injector.invoke(function(serviceA){});

// annotated function explicit(serviceA) {}; explicit.$inject = ['serviceA']; $injector.invoke(explicit);

// inline $injector.invoke(['serviceA', function(serviceA){}]); </pre>

## Inference

In JavaScript calling toString() on a function returns the function definition. The definition can then be parsed and the function arguments can be extracted. NOTE: This does not work with minification, and obfuscation tools since these tools change the argument names.

## $inject Annotation By adding a $inject property onto a function the injection parameters can be specified.

## Inline As an array of injection names, where the last item in the array is the function to call.

@ngdoc method

@name AUTO.$injector#get

@methodOf AUTO.$injector

@description Return an instance of the service.

@param {string} name The name of the instance to retrieve.

@return {*} The instance.

@ngdoc method

@name AUTO.$injector#invoke

@methodOf AUTO.$injector

@description Invoke the method and supply the method arguments from the $injector.

@param {!function} fn The function to invoke. The function arguments come form the function annotation.

@param {Object=} self The this for the invoked method.

@param {Object=} locals Optional object. If preset then any argument names are read from this object first, before the $injector is consulted.

@returns {*} the value returned by the invoked fn function.

@ngdoc method

@name AUTO.$injector#instantiate

@methodOf AUTO.$injector

@description Create a new instance of JS type. The method takes a constructor function invokes the new operator and supplies all of the arguments to the constructor function as specified by the constructor annotation.

@param {function} Type Annotated constructor function.

@param {Object=} locals Optional object. If preset then any argument names are read from this object first, before the $injector is consulted.

@returns {Object} new instance of Type.

@ngdoc method

@name AUTO.$injector#annotate

@methodOf AUTO.$injector

@description Returns an array of service names which the function is requesting for injection. This API is used by the injector to determine which services need to be injected into the function when the function is invoked. There are three ways in which the function can be annotated with the needed dependencies.

# Argument names

The simplest form is to extract the dependencies from the arguments of the function. This is done by converting the function into a string using toString() method and extracting the argument names. <pre> // Given function MyController($scope, $route) { // ... }

// Then expect(injector.annotate(MyController)).toEqual(['$scope', '$route']); </pre>

This method does not work with code minfication / obfuscation. For this reason the following annotation strategies are supported.

# The $inject property

If a function has an $inject property and its value is an array of strings, then the strings represent names of services to be injected into the function. <pre> // Given var MyController = function(obfuscatedScope, obfuscatedRoute) { // ... } // Define function dependencies MyController.$inject = ['$scope', '$route'];

// Then expect(injector.annotate(MyController)).toEqual(['$scope', '$route']); </pre>

# The array notation

It is often desirable to inline Injected functions and that's when setting the $inject property is very inconvenient. In these situations using the array notation to specify the dependencies in a way that survives minification is a better choice:

<pre> // We wish to write this (not minification / obfuscation safe) injector.invoke(function($compile, $rootScope) { // ... });

// We are forced to write break inlining var tmpFn = function(obfuscatedCompile, obfuscatedRootScope) { // ... }; tmpFn.$inject = ['$compile', '$rootScope']; injector.invoke(tempFn);

// To better support inline function the inline annotation is supported injector.invoke(['$compile', '$rootScope', function(obfCompile, obfRootScope) { // ... }]);

// Therefore expect(injector.annotate( ['$compile', '$rootScope', function(obfus$compile, obfus$rootScope) {}]) ).toEqual(['$compile', '$rootScope']); </pre>

@param {function|Array.<string|Function>} fn Function for which dependent service names need to be retrieved as described above.

@returns {Array.<string>} The names of the services which the function requires.

@ngdoc object

@name AUTO.$provide

@description

Use $provide to register new providers with the $injector. The providers are the factories for the instance. The providers share the same name as the instance they create with Provider suffixed to them.

A provider is an object with a $get() method. The injector calls the $get method to create a new instance of a service. The Provider can have additional methods which would allow for configuration of the provider.

<pre> function GreetProvider() { var salutation = 'Hello';

 this.salutation = function(text) {    salutation = text;  };  this.$get = function() {    return function (name) {      return salutation + &#39; &#39; + name + &#39;!&#39;;    };  }; 

}

describe('Greeter', function(){

 beforeEach(module(function($provide) {    $provide.provider(&#39;greet&#39;, GreetProvider);  });  it(&#39;should greet&#39;, inject(function(greet) {    expect(greet(&#39;angular&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;Hello angular!&#39;);  }));  it(&#39;should allow configuration of salutation&#39;, function() {    module(function(greetProvider) {      greetProvider.salutation(&#39;Ahoj&#39;);    });    inject(function(greet) {      expect(greet(&#39;angular&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;Ahoj angular!&#39;);    });  )}; 

}); </pre>

@ngdoc method

@name AUTO.$provide#provider

@methodOf AUTO.$provide

@description

Register a provider for a service. The providers can be retrieved and can have additional configuration methods.

@param {string} name The name of the instance. NOTE: the provider will be available under name + &#39;Provider&#39; key.

@param {(Object|function())} provider If the provider is:

  • Object: then it should have a $get method. The $get method will be invoked using {@link AUTO.$injector#invoke $injector.invoke()} when an instance needs to be created.
  • Constructor: a new instance of the provider will be created using {@link AUTO.$injector#instantiate $injector.instantiate()}, then treated as object.

    @returns {Object} registered provider instance

@ngdoc method

@name AUTO.$provide#factory

@methodOf AUTO.$provide

@description

A short hand for configuring services if only $get method is required.

@param {string} name The name of the instance.

@param {function()} $getFn The $getFn for the instance creation. Internally this is a short hand for $provide.provider(name, {$get: $getFn}).

@returns {Object} registered provider instance

@ngdoc method

@name AUTO.$provide#service

@methodOf AUTO.$provide

@description

A short hand for registering service of given class.

@param {string} name The name of the instance.

@param {Function} constructor A class (constructor function) that will be instantiated.

@returns {Object} registered provider instance

@ngdoc method

@name AUTO.$provide#value

@methodOf AUTO.$provide

@description

A short hand for configuring services if the $get method is a constant.

@param {string} name The name of the instance.

@param {*} value The value.

@returns {Object} registered provider instance

@ngdoc method

@name AUTO.$provide#constant

@methodOf AUTO.$provide

@description

A constant value, but unlike {@link AUTO.$provide#value value} it can be injected into configuration function (other modules) and it is not interceptable by {@link AUTO.$provide#decorator decorator}.

@param {string} name The name of the constant.

@param {*} value The constant value.

@returns {Object} registered instance

@ngdoc method

@name AUTO.$provide#decorator

@methodOf AUTO.$provide

@description

Decoration of service, allows the decorator to intercept the service instance creation. The returned instance may be the original instance, or a new instance which delegates to the original instance.

@param {string} name The name of the service to decorate.

@param {function()} decorator This function will be invoked when the service needs to be instanciated. The function is called using the {@link AUTO.$injector#invoke injector.invoke} method and is therefore fully injectable. Local injection arguments:

* `$delegate` - The original service instance, which can be monkey patched, configured,   decorated or delegated to. 
function createInjector(modulesToLoad) {
  var INSTANTIATING = {},
      providerSuffix = 'Provider',
      path = [],
      loadedModules = new HashMap(),
      providerCache = {
        $provide: {
            provider: supportObject(provider),
            factory: supportObject(factory),
            service: supportObject(service),
            value: supportObject(value),
            constant: supportObject(constant),
            decorator: decorator
          }
      },
      providerInjector = createInternalInjector(providerCache, function() {
        throw Error("Unknown provider: " + path.join(' <- '));
      }),
      instanceCache = {},
      instanceInjector = (instanceCache.$injector =
          createInternalInjector(instanceCache, function(servicename) {
            var provider = providerInjector.get(servicename + providerSuffix);
            return instanceInjector.invoke(provider.$get, provider);
          }));


  forEach(loadModules(modulesToLoad), function(fn) { instanceInjector.invoke(fn || noop); });

  return instanceInjector;

////////////////////////////////// $provider //////////////////////////////////

  function supportObject(delegate) {
    return function(key, value) {
      if (isObject(key)) {
        forEach(key, reverseParams(delegate));
      } else {
        return delegate(key, value);
      }
    }
  }

  function provider(name, provider_) {
    if (isFunction(provider_) || isArray(provider_)) {
      provider_ = providerInjector.instantiate(provider_);
    }
    if (!provider_.$get) {
      throw Error('Provider ' + name + ' must define $get factory method.');
    }
    return providerCache[name + providerSuffix] = provider_;
  }

  function factory(name, factoryFn) { return provider(name, { $get: factoryFn }); }

  function service(name, constructor) {
    return factory(name, ['$injector', function($injector) {
      return $injector.instantiate(constructor);
    }]);
  }

  function value(name, value) { return factory(name, valueFn(value)); }

  function constant(name, value) {
    providerCache[name] = value;
    instanceCache[name] = value;
  }

  function decorator(serviceName, decorFn) {
    var origProvider = providerInjector.get(serviceName + providerSuffix),
        orig$get = origProvider.$get;

    origProvider.$get = function() {
      var origInstance = instanceInjector.invoke(orig$get, origProvider);
      return instanceInjector.invoke(decorFn, null, {$delegate: origInstance});
    };
  }

////////////////////////////////// Module Loading //////////////////////////////////

  function loadModules(modulesToLoad){
    var runBlocks = [];
    forEach(modulesToLoad, function(module) {
      if (loadedModules.get(module)) return;
      loadedModules.put(module, true);
      if (isString(module)) {
        var moduleFn = angularModule(module);
        runBlocks = runBlocks.concat(loadModules(moduleFn.requires)).concat(moduleFn._runBlocks);

        try {
          for(var invokeQueue = moduleFn._invokeQueue, i = 0, ii = invokeQueue.length; i < ii; i++) {
            var invokeArgs = invokeQueue[i],
                provider = invokeArgs[0] == '$injector'
                    ? providerInjector
                    : providerInjector.get(invokeArgs[0]);

            provider[invokeArgs[1]].apply(provider, invokeArgs[2]);
          }
        } catch (e) {
          if (e.message) e.message += ' from ' + module;
          throw e;
        }
      } else if (isFunction(module)) {
        try {
          runBlocks.push(providerInjector.invoke(module));
        } catch (e) {
          if (e.message) e.message += ' from ' + module;
          throw e;
        }
      } else if (isArray(module)) {
        try {
          runBlocks.push(providerInjector.invoke(module));
        } catch (e) {
          if (e.message) e.message += ' from ' + String(module[module.length - 1]);
          throw e;
        }
      } else {
        assertArgFn(module, 'module');
      }
    });
    return runBlocks;
  }

////////////////////////////////// internal Injector //////////////////////////////////

  function createInternalInjector(cache, factory) {

    function getService(serviceName) {
      if (typeof serviceName !== 'string') {
        throw Error('Service name expected');
      }
      if (cache.hasOwnProperty(serviceName)) {
        if (cache[serviceName] === INSTANTIATING) {
          throw Error('Circular dependency: ' + path.join(' <- '));
        }
        return cache[serviceName];
      } else {
        try {
          path.unshift(serviceName);
          cache[serviceName] = INSTANTIATING;
          return cache[serviceName] = factory(serviceName);
        } finally {
          path.shift();
        }
      }
    }

    function invoke(fn, self, locals){
      var args = [],
          $inject = annotate(fn),
          length, i,
          key;

      for(i = 0, length = $inject.length; i < length; i++) {
        key = $inject[i];
        args.push(
          locals && locals.hasOwnProperty(key)
          ? locals[key]
          : getService(key)
        );
      }
      if (!fn.$inject) {

this means that we must be an array.

        fn = fn[length];
      }

Performance optimization: http://jsperf.com/apply-vs-call-vs-invoke

      switch (self ? -1 : args.length) {
        case  0: return fn();
        case  1: return fn(args[0]);
        case  2: return fn(args[0], args[1]);
        case  3: return fn(args[0], args[1], args[2]);
        case  4: return fn(args[0], args[1], args[2], args[3]);
        case  5: return fn(args[0], args[1], args[2], args[3], args[4]);
        case  6: return fn(args[0], args[1], args[2], args[3], args[4], args[5]);
        case  7: return fn(args[0], args[1], args[2], args[3], args[4], args[5], args[6]);
        case  8: return fn(args[0], args[1], args[2], args[3], args[4], args[5], args[6], args[7]);
        case  9: return fn(args[0], args[1], args[2], args[3], args[4], args[5], args[6], args[7], args[8]);
        case 10: return fn(args[0], args[1], args[2], args[3], args[4], args[5], args[6], args[7], args[8], args[9]);
        default: return fn.apply(self, args);
      }
    }

    function instantiate(Type, locals) {
      var Constructor = function() {},
          instance, returnedValue;

      Constructor.prototype = (isArray(Type) ? Type[Type.length - 1] : Type).prototype;
      instance = new Constructor();
      returnedValue = invoke(Type, instance, locals);

      return isObject(returnedValue) ? returnedValue : instance;
    }

    return {
      invoke: invoke,
      instantiate: instantiate,
      get: getService,
      annotate: annotate
    };
  }
}

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$anchorScroll

@requires $window

@requires $location

@requires $rootScope

@description When called, it checks current value of $location.hash() and scroll to related element, according to rules specified in {@link http://dev.w3.org/html5/spec/Overview.html#the-indicated-part-of-the-document Html5 spec}.

It also watches the $location.hash() and scroll whenever it changes to match any anchor. This can be disabled by calling $anchorScrollProvider.disableAutoScrolling().

function $AnchorScrollProvider() {

  var autoScrollingEnabled = true;

  this.disableAutoScrolling = function() {
    autoScrollingEnabled = false;
  };

  this.$get = ['$window', '$location', '$rootScope', function($window, $location, $rootScope) {
    var document = $window.document;

helper function to get first anchor from a NodeList can't use filter.filter, as it accepts only instances of Array and IE can't convert NodeList to an array using [].slice TODO(vojta): use filter if we change it to accept lists as well

    function getFirstAnchor(list) {
      var result = null;
      forEach(list, function(element) {
        if (!result && lowercase(element.nodeName) === 'a') result = element;
      });
      return result;
    }

    function scroll() {
      var hash = $location.hash(), elm;

empty hash, scroll to the top of the page

      if (!hash) $window.scrollTo(0, 0);

element with given id

      else if ((elm = document.getElementById(hash))) elm.scrollIntoView();

first anchor with given name :-D

      else if ((elm = getFirstAnchor(document.getElementsByName(hash)))) elm.scrollIntoView();

no element and hash == 'top', scroll to the top of the page

      else if (hash === 'top') $window.scrollTo(0, 0);
    }

does not scroll when user clicks on anchor link that is currently on (no url change, no $location.hash() change), browser native does scroll

    if (autoScrollingEnabled) {
      $rootScope.$watch(function autoScrollWatch() {return $location.hash();},
        function autoScrollWatchAction() {
          $rootScope.$evalAsync(scroll);
        });
    }

    return scroll;
  }];
}

! This is a private undocumented service !

@name ng.$browser

@requires $log

@description This object has two goals:

  • hide all the global state in the browser caused by the window object
  • abstract away all the browser specific features and inconsistencies

    For tests we provide {@link ngMock.$browser mock implementation} of the $browser service, which can be used for convenient testing of the application without the interaction with the real browser apis.

    @param {object} window The global window object.

    @param {object} document jQuery wrapped document.

    @param {function()} XHR XMLHttpRequest constructor.

    @param {object} $log console.log or an object with the same interface.

    @param {object} $sniffer $sniffer service

function Browser(window, document, $log, $sniffer) {
  var self = this,
      rawDocument = document[0],
      location = window.location,
      history = window.history,
      setTimeout = window.setTimeout,
      clearTimeout = window.clearTimeout,
      pendingDeferIds = {};

  self.isMock = false;

  var outstandingRequestCount = 0;
  var outstandingRequestCallbacks = [];

TODO(vojta): remove this temporary api

  self.$$completeOutstandingRequest = completeOutstandingRequest;
  self.$$incOutstandingRequestCount = function() { outstandingRequestCount++; };

Executes the fn function(supports currying) and decrements the outstandingRequestCallbacks counter. If the counter reaches 0, all the outstandingRequestCallbacks are executed.

  function completeOutstandingRequest(fn) {
    try {
      fn.apply(null, sliceArgs(arguments, 1));
    } finally {
      outstandingRequestCount--;
      if (outstandingRequestCount === 0) {
        while(outstandingRequestCallbacks.length) {
          try {
            outstandingRequestCallbacks.pop()();
          } catch (e) {
            $log.error(e);
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }

@private Note: this method is used only by scenario runner TODO(vojta): prefix this method with $$ ?

@param {function()} callback Function that will be called when no outstanding request

  self.notifyWhenNoOutstandingRequests = function(callback) {

force browser to execute all pollFns - this is needed so that cookies and other pollers fire at some deterministic time in respect to the test runner's actions. Leaving things up to the regular poller would result in flaky tests.

    forEach(pollFns, function(pollFn){ pollFn(); });

    if (outstandingRequestCount === 0) {
      callback();
    } else {
      outstandingRequestCallbacks.push(callback);
    }
  };

//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Poll Watcher API ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  var pollFns = [],
      pollTimeout;

@name ng.$browser#addPollFn

@methodOf ng.$browser

@param {function()} fn Poll function to add

@description Adds a function to the list of functions that poller periodically executes, and starts polling if not started yet.

@returns {function()} the added function

  self.addPollFn = function(fn) {
    if (isUndefined(pollTimeout)) startPoller(100, setTimeout);
    pollFns.push(fn);
    return fn;
  };

@param {number} interval How often should browser call poll functions (ms)

@param {function()} setTimeout Reference to a real or fake setTimeout function.

@description Configures the poller to run in the specified intervals, using the specified setTimeout fn and kicks it off.

  function startPoller(interval, setTimeout) {
    (function check() {
      forEach(pollFns, function(pollFn){ pollFn(); });
      pollTimeout = setTimeout(check, interval);
    })();
  }

//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// URL API ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  var lastBrowserUrl = location.href,
      baseElement = document.find('base');

@name ng.$browser#url

@methodOf ng.$browser

@description GETTER: Without any argument, this method just returns current value of location.href.

SETTER: With at least one argument, this method sets url to new value. If html5 history api supported, pushState/replaceState is used, otherwise location.href/location.replace is used. Returns its own instance to allow chaining

NOTE: this api is intended for use only by the $location service. Please use the {@link ng.$location $location service} to change url.

@param {string} url New url (when used as setter)

@param {boolean=} replace Should new url replace current history record ?

  self.url = function(url, replace) {

setter

    if (url) {
      if (lastBrowserUrl == url) return;
      lastBrowserUrl = url;
      if ($sniffer.history) {
        if (replace) history.replaceState(null, '', url);
        else {
          history.pushState(null, '', url);

Crazy Opera Bug: http://my.opera.com/community/forums/topic.dml?id=1185462

          baseElement.attr('href', baseElement.attr('href'));
        }
      } else {
        if (replace) location.replace(url);
        else location.href = url;
      }
      return self;

getter

    } else {

the replacement is a workaround for https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=407172

      return location.href.replace(/%27/g,"'");
    }
  };

  var urlChangeListeners = [],
      urlChangeInit = false;

  function fireUrlChange() {
    if (lastBrowserUrl == self.url()) return;

    lastBrowserUrl = self.url();
    forEach(urlChangeListeners, function(listener) {
      listener(self.url());
    });
  }

@name ng.$browser#onUrlChange

@methodOf ng.$browser

@TODO(vojta): refactor to use node's syntax for events

@description Register callback function that will be called, when url changes.

It's only called when the url is changed by outside of angular: - user types different url into address bar - user clicks on history (forward/back) button - user clicks on a link

It's not called when url is changed by $browser.url() method

The listener gets called with new url as parameter.

NOTE: this api is intended for use only by the $location service. Please use the {@link ng.$location $location service} to monitor url changes in angular apps.

@param {function(string)} listener Listener function to be called when url changes.

@return {function(string)} Returns the registered listener fn - handy if the fn is anonymous.

  self.onUrlChange = function(callback) {
    if (!urlChangeInit) {

We listen on both (hashchange/popstate) when available, as some browsers (e.g. Opera) don't fire popstate when user change the address bar and don't fire hashchange when url changed by push/replaceState

html5 history api - popstate event

      if ($sniffer.history) jqLite(window).bind('popstate', fireUrlChange);

hashchange event

      if ($sniffer.hashchange) jqLite(window).bind('hashchange', fireUrlChange);

polling

      else self.addPollFn(fireUrlChange);

      urlChangeInit = true;
    }

    urlChangeListeners.push(callback);
    return callback;
  };

//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Misc API ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Returns current <base href> (always relative - without domain)

@returns {string=}

  self.baseHref = function() {
    var href = baseElement.attr('href');
    return href ? href.replace(/^https?\:\/\/[^\/]*/, '') : '';
  };

//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Cookies API ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  var lastCookies = {};
  var lastCookieString = '';
  var cookiePath = self.baseHref();

@name ng.$browser#cookies

@methodOf ng.$browser

@param {string=} name Cookie name

@param {string=} value Cokkie value

@description The cookies method provides a 'private' low level access to browser cookies. It is not meant to be used directly, use the $cookie service instead.

The return values vary depending on the arguments that the method was called with as follows: <ul> <li>cookies() -> hash of all cookies, this is NOT a copy of the internal state, so do not modify it</li> <li>cookies(name, value) -> set name to value, if value is undefined delete the cookie</li> <li>cookies(name) -> the same as (name, undefined) == DELETES (no one calls it right now that way)</li> </ul>

@returns {Object} Hash of all cookies (if called without any parameter)

  self.cookies = function(name, value) {
    var cookieLength, cookieArray, cookie, i, index;

    if (name) {
      if (value === undefined) {
        rawDocument.cookie = escape(name) + "=;path=" + cookiePath + ";expires=Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:00:00 GMT";
      } else {
        if (isString(value)) {
          cookieLength = (rawDocument.cookie = escape(name) + '=' + escape(value) + ';path=' + cookiePath).length + 1;

per http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2109.txt browser must allow at minimum: - 300 cookies - 20 cookies per unique domain - 4096 bytes per cookie

          if (cookieLength > 4096) {
            $log.warn("Cookie '"+ name +"' possibly not set or overflowed because it was too large ("+
              cookieLength + " > 4096 bytes)!");
          }
        }
      }
    } else {
      if (rawDocument.cookie !== lastCookieString) {
        lastCookieString = rawDocument.cookie;
        cookieArray = lastCookieString.split("; ");
        lastCookies = {};

        for (i = 0; i < cookieArray.length; i++) {
          cookie = cookieArray[i];
          index = cookie.indexOf('=');
          if (index > 0) { //ignore nameless cookies
            lastCookies[unescape(cookie.substring(0, index))] = unescape(cookie.substring(index + 1));
          }
        }
      }
      return lastCookies;
    }
  };

@name ng.$browser#defer

@methodOf ng.$browser

@param {function()} fn A function, who's execution should be defered.

@param {number=} [delay=0] of milliseconds to defer the function execution.

@returns {*} DeferId that can be used to cancel the task via $browser.defer.cancel().

@description Executes a fn asynchroniously via setTimeout(fn, delay).

Unlike when calling setTimeout directly, in test this function is mocked and instead of using setTimeout in tests, the fns are queued in an array, which can be programmatically flushed via $browser.defer.flush().

  self.defer = function(fn, delay) {
    var timeoutId;
    outstandingRequestCount++;
    timeoutId = setTimeout(function() {
      delete pendingDeferIds[timeoutId];
      completeOutstandingRequest(fn);
    }, delay || 0);
    pendingDeferIds[timeoutId] = true;
    return timeoutId;
  };

@name ng.$browser#defer.cancel

@methodOf ng.$browser.defer

@description Cancels a defered task identified with deferId.

@param {*} deferId Token returned by the $browser.defer function.

@returns {boolean} Returns true if the task hasn't executed yet and was successfuly canceled.

  self.defer.cancel = function(deferId) {
    if (pendingDeferIds[deferId]) {
      delete pendingDeferIds[deferId];
      clearTimeout(deferId);
      completeOutstandingRequest(noop);
      return true;
    }
    return false;
  };

}

function $BrowserProvider(){
  this.$get = ['$window', '$log', '$sniffer', '$document',
      function( $window,   $log,   $sniffer,   $document){
        return new Browser($window, $document, $log, $sniffer);
      }];
}

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$cacheFactory

@description Factory that constructs cache objects.

@param {string} cacheId Name or id of the newly created cache.

@param {object=} options Options object that specifies the cache behavior. Properties:

  • {number=} capacity — turns the cache into LRU cache.

    @returns {object} Newly created cache object with the following set of methods:

    • {object} info() — Returns id, size, and options of cache.
    • {void} put({string} key, {*} value) — Puts a new key-value pair into the cache.
    • {{*}} get({string} key) — Returns cached value for key or undefined for cache miss.
    • {void} remove({string} key) — Removes a key-value pair from the cache.
    • {void} removeAll() — Removes all cached values.
    • {void} destroy() — Removes references to this cache from $cacheFactory.
function $CacheFactoryProvider() {

  this.$get = function() {
    var caches = {};

    function cacheFactory(cacheId, options) {
      if (cacheId in caches) {
        throw Error('cacheId ' + cacheId + ' taken');
      }

      var size = 0,
          stats = extend({}, options, {id: cacheId}),
          data = {},
          capacity = (options && options.capacity) || Number.MAX_VALUE,
          lruHash = {},
          freshEnd = null,
          staleEnd = null;

      return caches[cacheId] = {

        put: function(key, value) {
          var lruEntry = lruHash[key] || (lruHash[key] = {key: key});

          refresh(lruEntry);

          if (isUndefined(value)) return;
          if (!(key in data)) size++;
          data[key] = value;

          if (size > capacity) {
            this.remove(staleEnd.key);
          }
        },


        get: function(key) {
          var lruEntry = lruHash[key];

          if (!lruEntry) return;

          refresh(lruEntry);

          return data[key];
        },


        remove: function(key) {
          var lruEntry = lruHash[key];

          if (!lruEntry) return;

          if (lruEntry == freshEnd) freshEnd = lruEntry.p;
          if (lruEntry == staleEnd) staleEnd = lruEntry.n;
          link(lruEntry.n,lruEntry.p);

          delete lruHash[key];
          delete data[key];
          size--;
        },


        removeAll: function() {
          data = {};
          size = 0;
          lruHash = {};
          freshEnd = staleEnd = null;
        },


        destroy: function() {
          data = null;
          stats = null;
          lruHash = null;
          delete caches[cacheId];
        },


        info: function() {
          return extend({}, stats, {size: size});
        }
      };

makes the entry the freshEnd of the LRU linked list

      function refresh(entry) {
        if (entry != freshEnd) {
          if (!staleEnd) {
            staleEnd = entry;
          } else if (staleEnd == entry) {
            staleEnd = entry.n;
          }

          link(entry.n, entry.p);
          link(entry, freshEnd);
          freshEnd = entry;
          freshEnd.n = null;
        }
      }

bidirectionally links two entries of the LRU linked list

      function link(nextEntry, prevEntry) {
        if (nextEntry != prevEntry) {
          if (nextEntry) nextEntry.p = prevEntry; //p stands for previous, 'prev' didn't minify
          if (prevEntry) prevEntry.n = nextEntry; //n stands for next, 'next' didn't minify
        }
      }
    }


    cacheFactory.info = function() {
      var info = {};
      forEach(caches, function(cache, cacheId) {
        info[cacheId] = cache.info();
      });
      return info;
    };


    cacheFactory.get = function(cacheId) {
      return caches[cacheId];
    };


    return cacheFactory;
  };
}

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$templateCache

@description Cache used for storing html templates.

See {@link ng.$cacheFactory $cacheFactory}.

function $TemplateCacheProvider() {
  this.$get = ['$cacheFactory', function($cacheFactory) {
    return $cacheFactory('templates');
  }];
}

! VARIABLE/FUNCTION NAMING CONVENTIONS THAT APPLY TO THIS FILE!

DOM-related variables:

  • "node" - DOM Node
  • "element" - DOM Element or Node
  • "$node" or "$element" - jqLite-wrapped node or element

    Compiler related stuff:

  • "linkFn" - linking fn of a single directive

  • "nodeLinkFn" - function that aggregates all linking fns for a particular node
  • "childLinkFn" - function that aggregates all linking fns for child nodes of a particular node
  • "compositeLinkFn" - function that aggregates all linking fns for a compilation root (nodeList)
var NON_ASSIGNABLE_MODEL_EXPRESSION = 'Non-assignable model expression: ';

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$compile

@function

@description Compiles a piece of HTML string or DOM into a template and produces a template function, which can then be used to link {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope scope} and the template together.

The compilation is a process of walking the DOM tree and trying to match DOM elements to {@link ng.$compileProvider#directive directives}. For each match it executes corresponding template function and collects the instance functions into a single template function which is then returned.

The template function can then be used once to produce the view or as it is the case with {@link ng.directive:ngRepeat repeater} many-times, in which case each call results in a view that is a DOM clone of the original template.

<doc:example module="compile"> <doc:source> <script> // declare a new module, and inject the $compileProvider angular.module('compile', [], function($compileProvider) { // configure new 'compile' directive by passing a directive // factory function. The factory function injects the '$compile' $compileProvider.directive('compile', function($compile) { // directive factory creates a link function return function(scope, element, attrs) { scope.$watch( function(scope) { // watch the 'compile' expression for changes return scope.$eval(attrs.compile); }, function(value) { // when the 'compile' expression changes // assign it into the current DOM element.html(value);

            // compile the new DOM and link it to the current             // scope.             // NOTE: we only compile .childNodes so that             // we don&#39;t get into infinite loop compiling ourselves             $compile(element.contents())(scope);           }         );       };     })   });   function Ctrl($scope) {     $scope.name = &#39;Angular&#39;;     $scope.html = &#39;Hello {{name}}&#39;;   } &lt;/script&gt; &lt;div ng-controller=&quot;Ctrl&quot;&gt;   &lt;input ng-model=&quot;name&quot;&gt; &lt;br&gt;   &lt;textarea ng-model=&quot;html&quot;&gt;&lt;/textarea&gt; &lt;br&gt;   &lt;div compile=&quot;html&quot;&gt;&lt;/div&gt; &lt;/div&gt; 

</doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should auto compile', function() { expect(element('div[compile]').text()).toBe('Hello Angular'); input('html').enter('{{name}}!'); expect(element('div[compile]').text()).toBe('Angular!'); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

@param {string|DOMElement} element Element or HTML string to compile into a template function.

@param {function(angular.Scope[, cloneAttachFn]} transclude function available to directives.

@param {number} maxPriority only apply directives lower then given priority (Only effects the root element(s), not their children)

@returns {function(scope[, cloneAttachFn])} a link function which is used to bind template (a DOM element/tree) to a scope. Where:

  • scope - A {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope Scope} to bind to.
  • cloneAttachFn - If cloneAttachFn is provided, then the link function will clone the template and call the cloneAttachFn function allowing the caller to attach the cloned elements to the DOM document at the appropriate place. The cloneAttachFn is called as: <br> cloneAttachFn(clonedElement, scope) where:

    • clonedElement - is a clone of the original element passed into the compiler.
    • scope - is the current scope with which the linking function is working with.

    Calling the linking function returns the element of the template. It is either the original element passed in, or the clone of the element if the cloneAttachFn is provided.

    After linking the view is not updated until after a call to $digest which typically is done by Angular automatically.

    If you need access to the bound view, there are two ways to do it:

    • If you are not asking the linking function to clone the template, create the DOM element(s) before you send them to the compiler and keep this reference around. <pre> var element = $compile('<p>{{total}}</p>')(scope); </pre>

    • if on the other hand, you need the element to be cloned, the view reference from the original example would not point to the clone, but rather to the original template that was cloned. In this case, you can access the clone via the cloneAttachFn: <pre> var templateHTML = angular.element('<p>{{total}}</p>'), scope = ....;

      var clonedElement = $compile(templateHTML)(scope, function(clonedElement, scope) { //attach the clone to DOM document at the right place });

      //now we have reference to the cloned DOM via clone </pre>

    For information on how the compiler works, see the {@link guide/compiler Angular HTML Compiler} section of the Developer Guide.

@ngdoc service

@name ng.$compileProvider

@function

@description

$CompileProvider.$inject = ['$provide'];
function $CompileProvider($provide) {
  var hasDirectives = {},
      Suffix = 'Directive',
      COMMENT_DIRECTIVE_REGEXP = /^\s*directive\:\s*([\d\w\-_]+)\s+(.*)$/,
      CLASS_DIRECTIVE_REGEXP = /(([\d\w\-_]+)(?:\:([^;]+))?;?)/,
      MULTI_ROOT_TEMPLATE_ERROR = 'Template must have exactly one root element. was: ',
      urlSanitizationWhitelist = /^\s*(https?|ftp|mailto|file):/;

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$compileProvider#directive

@methodOf ng.$compileProvider

@function

@description Register a new directives with the compiler.

@param {string} name Name of the directive in camel-case. (ie <code>ngBind</code> which will match as <code>ng-bind</code>).

@param {function} directiveFactory An injectable directive factroy function. See {@link guide/directive} for more info.

@returns {ng.$compileProvider} Self for chaining.

   this.directive = function registerDirective(name, directiveFactory) {
    if (isString(name)) {
      assertArg(directiveFactory, 'directive');
      if (!hasDirectives.hasOwnProperty(name)) {
        hasDirectives[name] = [];
        $provide.factory(name + Suffix, ['$injector', '$exceptionHandler',
          function($injector, $exceptionHandler) {
            var directives = [];
            forEach(hasDirectives[name], function(directiveFactory) {
              try {
                var directive = $injector.invoke(directiveFactory);
                if (isFunction(directive)) {
                  directive = { compile: valueFn(directive) };
                } else if (!directive.compile && directive.link) {
                  directive.compile = valueFn(directive.link);
                }
                directive.priority = directive.priority || 0;
                directive.name = directive.name || name;
                directive.require = directive.require || (directive.controller && directive.name);
                directive.restrict = directive.restrict || 'A';
                directives.push(directive);
              } catch (e) {
                $exceptionHandler(e);
              }
            });
            return directives;
          }]);
      }
      hasDirectives[name].push(directiveFactory);
    } else {
      forEach(name, reverseParams(registerDirective));
    }
    return this;
  };

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$compileProvider#urlSanitizationWhitelist

@methodOf ng.$compileProvider

@function

@description Retrieves or overrides the default regular expression that is used for whitelisting of safe urls during a[href] sanitization.

The sanitization is a security measure aimed at prevent XSS attacks via html links.

Any url about to be assigned to a[href] via data-binding is first normalized and turned into an absolute url. Afterwards the url is matched against the urlSanitizationWhitelist regular expression. If a match is found the original url is written into the dom. Otherwise the absolute url is prefixed with &#39;unsafe:&#39; string and only then it is written into the DOM.

@param {RegExp=} regexp New regexp to whitelist urls with.

@returns {RegExp|ng.$compileProvider} Current RegExp if called without value or self for chaining otherwise.

  this.urlSanitizationWhitelist = function(regexp) {
    if (isDefined(regexp)) {
      urlSanitizationWhitelist = regexp;
      return this;
    }
    return urlSanitizationWhitelist;
  };


  this.$get = [
            '$injector', '$interpolate', '$exceptionHandler', '$http', '$templateCache', '$parse',
            '$controller', '$rootScope', '$document',
    function($injector,   $interpolate,   $exceptionHandler,   $http,   $templateCache,   $parse,
             $controller,   $rootScope,   $document) {

    var Attributes = function(element, attr) {
      this.$$element = element;
      this.$attr = attr || {};
    };

    Attributes.prototype = {
      $normalize: directiveNormalize,

Set a normalized attribute on the element in a way such that all directives can share the attribute. This function properly handles boolean attributes.

@param {string} key Normalized key. (ie ngAttribute)

@param {string|boolean} value The value to set. If null attribute will be deleted.

@param {boolean=} writeAttr If false, does not write the value to DOM element attribute. Defaults to true.

@param {string=} attrName Optional none normalized name. Defaults to key.

      $set: function(key, value, writeAttr, attrName) {
        var booleanKey = getBooleanAttrName(this.$$element[0], key),
            $$observers = this.$$observers,
            normalizedVal;

        if (booleanKey) {
          this.$$element.prop(key, value);
          attrName = booleanKey;
        }

        this[key] = value;

translate normalized key to actual key

        if (attrName) {
          this.$attr[key] = attrName;
        } else {
          attrName = this.$attr[key];
          if (!attrName) {
            this.$attr[key] = attrName = snake_case(key, '-');
          }
        }

sanitize a[href] values

        if (nodeName_(this.$$element[0]) === 'A' && key === 'href') {
          urlSanitizationNode.setAttribute('href', value);

href property always returns normalized absolute url, so we can match against that

          normalizedVal = urlSanitizationNode.href;
          if (!normalizedVal.match(urlSanitizationWhitelist)) {
            this[key] = value = 'unsafe:' + normalizedVal;
          }
        }


        if (writeAttr !== false) {
          if (value === null || value === undefined) {
            this.$$element.removeAttr(attrName);
          } else {
            this.$$element.attr(attrName, value);
          }
        }

fire observers

        $$observers && forEach($$observers[key], function(fn) {
          try {
            fn(value);
          } catch (e) {
            $exceptionHandler(e);
          }
        });
      },

Observe an interpolated attribute. The observer will never be called, if given attribute is not interpolated.

@param {string} key Normalized key. (ie ngAttribute) .

@param {function(*)} fn Function that will be called whenever the attribute value changes.

@returns {function(*)} the fn Function passed in.

      $observe: function(key, fn) {
        var attrs = this,
            $$observers = (attrs.$$observers || (attrs.$$observers = {})),
            listeners = ($$observers[key] || ($$observers[key] = []));

        listeners.push(fn);
        $rootScope.$evalAsync(function() {
          if (!listeners.$$inter) {

no one registered attribute interpolation function, so lets call it manually

            fn(attrs[key]);
          }
        });
        return fn;
      }
    };

    var urlSanitizationNode = $document[0].createElement('a'),
        startSymbol = $interpolate.startSymbol(),
        endSymbol = $interpolate.endSymbol(),
        denormalizeTemplate = (startSymbol == '{{' || endSymbol  == '}}')
            ? identity
            : function denormalizeTemplate(template) {
              return template.replace(/\{\{/g, startSymbol).replace(/}}/g, endSymbol);
            };


    return compile;

================================

    function compile($compileNodes, transcludeFn, maxPriority) {
      if (!($compileNodes instanceof jqLite)) {

jquery always rewraps, whereas we need to preserve the original selector so that we can modify it.

        $compileNodes = jqLite($compileNodes);
      }

We can not compile top level text elements since text nodes can be merged and we will not be able to attach scope data to them, so we will wrap them in <span>

      forEach($compileNodes, function(node, index){
        if (node.nodeType == 3 // text node && node.nodeValue.match(/\S+/) // non-empty ) {
          $compileNodes[index] = jqLite(node).wrap('<span></span>').parent()[0];
        }
      });
      var compositeLinkFn = compileNodes($compileNodes, transcludeFn, $compileNodes, maxPriority);
      return function publicLinkFn(scope, cloneConnectFn){
        assertArg(scope, 'scope');

important!!: we must call our jqLite.clone() since the jQuery one is trying to be smart and sometimes changes the structure of the DOM.

        var $linkNode = cloneConnectFn
          ? JQLitePrototype.clone.call($compileNodes) // IMPORTANT!!!
          : $compileNodes;

Attach scope only to non-text nodes.

        for(var i = 0, ii = $linkNode.length; i<ii; i++) {
          var node = $linkNode[i];
          if (node.nodeType == 1 // element || node.nodeType == 9 // document) {
            $linkNode.eq(i).data('$scope', scope);
          }
        }
        safeAddClass($linkNode, 'ng-scope');
        if (cloneConnectFn) cloneConnectFn($linkNode, scope);
        if (compositeLinkFn) compositeLinkFn(scope, $linkNode, $linkNode);
        return $linkNode;
      };
    }

    function wrongMode(localName, mode) {
      throw Error("Unsupported '" + mode + "' for '" + localName + "'.");
    }

    function safeAddClass($element, className) {
      try {
        $element.addClass(className);
      } catch(e) {

ignore, since it means that we are trying to set class on SVG element, where class name is read-only.

      }
    }

Compile function matches each node in nodeList against the directives. Once all directives for a particular node are collected their compile functions are executed. The compile functions return values - the linking functions - are combined into a composite linking function, which is the a linking function for the node.

@param {NodeList} nodeList an array of nodes or NodeList to compile

@param {function(angular.Scope[, cloneAttachFn]} transcludeFn A linking function, where the scope argument is auto-generated to the new child of the transcluded parent scope.

@param {DOMElement=} $rootElement If the nodeList is the root of the compilation tree then the rootElement must be set the jqLite collection of the compile root. This is needed so that the jqLite collection items can be replaced with widgets.

@param {number=} max directive priority

@returns {?function} A composite linking function of all of the matched directives or null.

    function compileNodes(nodeList, transcludeFn, $rootElement, maxPriority) {
      var linkFns = [],
          nodeLinkFn, childLinkFn, directives, attrs, linkFnFound;

      for(var i = 0; i < nodeList.length; i++) {
        attrs = new Attributes();

we must always refer to nodeList[i] since the nodes can be replaced underneath us.

        directives = collectDirectives(nodeList[i], [], attrs, maxPriority);

        nodeLinkFn = (directives.length)
            ? applyDirectivesToNode(directives, nodeList[i], attrs, transcludeFn, $rootElement)
            : null;

        childLinkFn = (nodeLinkFn && nodeLinkFn.terminal || !nodeList[i].childNodes || !nodeList[i].childNodes.length)
            ? null
            : compileNodes(nodeList[i].childNodes,
                 nodeLinkFn ? nodeLinkFn.transclude : transcludeFn);

        linkFns.push(nodeLinkFn);
        linkFns.push(childLinkFn);
        linkFnFound = (linkFnFound || nodeLinkFn || childLinkFn);
      }

return a linking function if we have found anything, null otherwise

      return linkFnFound ? compositeLinkFn : null;

      function compositeLinkFn(scope, nodeList, $rootElement, boundTranscludeFn) {
        var nodeLinkFn, childLinkFn, node, childScope, childTranscludeFn, i, ii, n;

copy nodeList so that linking doesn't break due to live list updates.

        var stableNodeList = [];
        for (i = 0, ii = nodeList.length; i < ii; i++) {
          stableNodeList.push(nodeList[i]);
        }

        for(i = 0, n = 0, ii = linkFns.length; i < ii; n++) {
          node = stableNodeList[n];
          nodeLinkFn = linkFns[i++];
          childLinkFn = linkFns[i++];

          if (nodeLinkFn) {
            if (nodeLinkFn.scope) {
              childScope = scope.$new(isObject(nodeLinkFn.scope));
              jqLite(node).data('$scope', childScope);
            } else {
              childScope = scope;
            }
            childTranscludeFn = nodeLinkFn.transclude;
            if (childTranscludeFn || (!boundTranscludeFn && transcludeFn)) {
              nodeLinkFn(childLinkFn, childScope, node, $rootElement,
                  (function(transcludeFn) {
                    return function(cloneFn) {
                      var transcludeScope = scope.$new();
                      transcludeScope.$$transcluded = true;

                      return transcludeFn(transcludeScope, cloneFn).
                          bind('$destroy', bind(transcludeScope, transcludeScope.$destroy));
                    };
                  })(childTranscludeFn || transcludeFn)
              );
            } else {
              nodeLinkFn(childLinkFn, childScope, node, undefined, boundTranscludeFn);
            }
          } else if (childLinkFn) {
            childLinkFn(scope, node.childNodes, undefined, boundTranscludeFn);
          }
        }
      }
    }

Looks for directives on the given node and adds them to the directive collection which is sorted.

@param node Node to search.

@param directives An array to which the directives are added to. This array is sorted before the function returns.

@param attrs The shared attrs object which is used to populate the normalized attributes.

@param {number=} maxPriority Max directive priority.

    function collectDirectives(node, directives, attrs, maxPriority) {
      var nodeType = node.nodeType,
          attrsMap = attrs.$attr,
          match,
          className;

      switch(nodeType) {
        case 1: // Element

use the node name: <directive>

          addDirective(directives,
              directiveNormalize(nodeName_(node).toLowerCase()), 'E', maxPriority);

iterate over the attributes

          for (var attr, name, nName, value, nAttrs = node.attributes,
                   j = 0, jj = nAttrs && nAttrs.length; j < jj; j++) {
            attr = nAttrs[j];
            if (attr.specified) {
              name = attr.name;
              nName = directiveNormalize(name.toLowerCase());
              attrsMap[nName] = name;
              attrs[nName] = value = trim((msie && name == 'href')
                ? decodeURIComponent(node.getAttribute(name, 2))
                : attr.value);
              if (getBooleanAttrName(node, nName)) {
                attrs[nName] = true; // presence means true
              }
              addAttrInterpolateDirective(node, directives, value, nName);
              addDirective(directives, nName, 'A', maxPriority);
            }
          }

use class as directive

          className = node.className;
          if (isString(className) && className !== '') {
            while (match = CLASS_DIRECTIVE_REGEXP.exec(className)) {
              nName = directiveNormalize(match[2]);
              if (addDirective(directives, nName, 'C', maxPriority)) {
                attrs[nName] = trim(match[3]);
              }
              className = className.substr(match.index + match[0].length);
            }
          }
          break;
        case 3: // Text Node
          addTextInterpolateDirective(directives, node.nodeValue);
          break;
        case 8: // Comment
          try {
            match = COMMENT_DIRECTIVE_REGEXP.exec(node.nodeValue);
            if (match) {
              nName = directiveNormalize(match[1]);
              if (addDirective(directives, nName, 'M', maxPriority)) {
                attrs[nName] = trim(match[2]);
              }
            }
          } catch (e) {

turns out that under some circumstances IE9 throws errors when one attempts to read comment's node value. Just ignore it and continue. (Can't seem to reproduce in test case.)

          }
          break;
      }

      directives.sort(byPriority);
      return directives;
    }

Once the directives have been collected their compile functions is executed. This method is responsible for inlining directive templates as well as terminating the application of the directives if the terminal directive has been reached..

@param {Array} directives Array of collected directives to execute their compile function. this needs to be pre-sorted by priority order.

@param {Node} compileNode The raw DOM node to apply the compile functions to

@param {Object} templateAttrs The shared attribute function

@param {function(angular.Scope[, cloneAttachFn]} transcludeFn A linking function, where the scope argument is auto-generated to the new child of the transcluded parent scope.

@param {DOMElement} $rootElement If we are working on the root of the compile tree then this argument has the root jqLite array so that we can replace widgets on it.

@returns linkFn

    function applyDirectivesToNode(directives, compileNode, templateAttrs, transcludeFn, $rootElement) {
      var terminalPriority = -Number.MAX_VALUE,
          preLinkFns = [],
          postLinkFns = [],
          newScopeDirective = null,
          newIsolateScopeDirective = null,
          templateDirective = null,
          $compileNode = templateAttrs.$$element = jqLite(compileNode),
          directive,
          directiveName,
          $template,
          transcludeDirective,
          childTranscludeFn = transcludeFn,
          controllerDirectives,
          linkFn,
          directiveValue;

executes all directives on the current element

      for(var i = 0, ii = directives.length; i < ii; i++) {
        directive = directives[i];
        $template = undefined;

        if (terminalPriority > directive.priority) {
          break; // prevent further processing of directives
        }

        if (directiveValue = directive.scope) {
          assertNoDuplicate('isolated scope', newIsolateScopeDirective, directive, $compileNode);
          if (isObject(directiveValue)) {
            safeAddClass($compileNode, 'ng-isolate-scope');
            newIsolateScopeDirective = directive;
          }
          safeAddClass($compileNode, 'ng-scope');
          newScopeDirective = newScopeDirective || directive;
        }

        directiveName = directive.name;

        if (directiveValue = directive.controller) {
          controllerDirectives = controllerDirectives || {};
          assertNoDuplicate("'" + directiveName + "' controller",
              controllerDirectives[directiveName], directive, $compileNode);
          controllerDirectives[directiveName] = directive;
        }

        if (directiveValue = directive.transclude) {
          assertNoDuplicate('transclusion', transcludeDirective, directive, $compileNode);
          transcludeDirective = directive;
          terminalPriority = directive.priority;
          if (directiveValue == 'element') {
            $template = jqLite(compileNode);
            $compileNode = templateAttrs.$$element =
                jqLite(document.createComment(' ' + directiveName + ': ' + templateAttrs[directiveName] + ' '));
            compileNode = $compileNode[0];
            replaceWith($rootElement, jqLite($template[0]), compileNode);
            childTranscludeFn = compile($template, transcludeFn, terminalPriority);
          } else {
            $template = jqLite(JQLiteClone(compileNode)).contents();
            $compileNode.html(''); // clear contents
            childTranscludeFn = compile($template, transcludeFn);
          }
        }

        if ((directiveValue = directive.template)) {
          assertNoDuplicate('template', templateDirective, directive, $compileNode);
          templateDirective = directive;
          directiveValue = denormalizeTemplate(directiveValue);

          if (directive.replace) {
            $template = jqLite('<div>' +
                                 trim(directiveValue) +
                               '</div>').contents();
            compileNode = $template[0];

            if ($template.length != 1 || compileNode.nodeType !== 1) {
              throw new Error(MULTI_ROOT_TEMPLATE_ERROR + directiveValue);
            }

            replaceWith($rootElement, $compileNode, compileNode);

            var newTemplateAttrs = {$attr: {}};

combine directives from the original node and from the template: - take the array of directives for this element - split it into two parts, those that were already applied and those that weren't - collect directives from the template, add them to the second group and sort them - append the second group with new directives to the first group

            directives = directives.concat(
                collectDirectives(
                    compileNode,
                    directives.splice(i + 1, directives.length - (i + 1)),
                    newTemplateAttrs
                )
            );
            mergeTemplateAttributes(templateAttrs, newTemplateAttrs);

            ii = directives.length;
          } else {
            $compileNode.html(directiveValue);
          }
        }

        if (directive.templateUrl) {
          assertNoDuplicate('template', templateDirective, directive, $compileNode);
          templateDirective = directive;
          nodeLinkFn = compileTemplateUrl(directives.splice(i, directives.length - i),
              nodeLinkFn, $compileNode, templateAttrs, $rootElement, directive.replace,
              childTranscludeFn);
          ii = directives.length;
        } else if (directive.compile) {
          try {
            linkFn = directive.compile($compileNode, templateAttrs, childTranscludeFn);
            if (isFunction(linkFn)) {
              addLinkFns(null, linkFn);
            } else if (linkFn) {
              addLinkFns(linkFn.pre, linkFn.post);
            }
          } catch (e) {
            $exceptionHandler(e, startingTag($compileNode));
          }
        }

        if (directive.terminal) {
          nodeLinkFn.terminal = true;
          terminalPriority = Math.max(terminalPriority, directive.priority);
        }

      }

      nodeLinkFn.scope = newScopeDirective && newScopeDirective.scope;
      nodeLinkFn.transclude = transcludeDirective && childTranscludeFn;

might be normal or delayed nodeLinkFn depending on if templateUrl is present

      return nodeLinkFn;

//////////////////

      function addLinkFns(pre, post) {
        if (pre) {
          pre.require = directive.require;
          preLinkFns.push(pre);
        }
        if (post) {
          post.require = directive.require;
          postLinkFns.push(post);
        }
      }


      function getControllers(require, $element) {
        var value, retrievalMethod = 'data', optional = false;
        if (isString(require)) {
          while((value = require.charAt(0)) == '^' || value == '?') {
            require = require.substr(1);
            if (value == '^') {
              retrievalMethod = 'inheritedData';
            }
            optional = optional || value == '?';
          }
          value = $element[retrievalMethod]('$' + require + 'Controller');
          if (!value && !optional) {
            throw Error("No controller: " + require);
          }
          return value;
        } else if (isArray(require)) {
          value = [];
          forEach(require, function(require) {
            value.push(getControllers(require, $element));
          });
        }
        return value;
      }


      function nodeLinkFn(childLinkFn, scope, linkNode, $rootElement, boundTranscludeFn) {
        var attrs, $element, i, ii, linkFn, controller;

        if (compileNode === linkNode) {
          attrs = templateAttrs;
        } else {
          attrs = shallowCopy(templateAttrs, new Attributes(jqLite(linkNode), templateAttrs.$attr));
        }
        $element = attrs.$$element;

        if (newIsolateScopeDirective) {
          var LOCAL_REGEXP = /^\s*([@=&])\s*(\w*)\s*$/;

          var parentScope = scope.$parent || scope;

          forEach(newIsolateScopeDirective.scope, function(definiton, scopeName) {
            var match = definiton.match(LOCAL_REGEXP) || [],
                attrName = match[2]|| scopeName,
                mode = match[1], // @, =, or &
                lastValue,
                parentGet, parentSet;

            scope.$$isolateBindings[scopeName] = mode + attrName;

            switch (mode) {

              case '@': {
                attrs.$observe(attrName, function(value) {
                  scope[scopeName] = value;
                });
                attrs.$$observers[attrName].$$scope = parentScope;
                break;
              }

              case '=': {
                parentGet = $parse(attrs[attrName]);
                parentSet = parentGet.assign || function() {

reset the change, or we will throw this exception on every $digest

                  lastValue = scope[scopeName] = parentGet(parentScope);
                  throw Error(NON_ASSIGNABLE_MODEL_EXPRESSION + attrs[attrName] +
                      ' (directive: ' + newIsolateScopeDirective.name + ')');
                };
                lastValue = scope[scopeName] = parentGet(parentScope);
                scope.$watch(function parentValueWatch() {
                  var parentValue = parentGet(parentScope);

                  if (parentValue !== scope[scopeName]) {

we are out of sync and need to copy

                    if (parentValue !== lastValue) {

parent changed and it has precedence

                      lastValue = scope[scopeName] = parentValue;
                    } else {

if the parent can be assigned then do so

                      parentSet(parentScope, parentValue = lastValue = scope[scopeName]);
                    }
                  }
                  return parentValue;
                });
                break;
              }

              case '&': {
                parentGet = $parse(attrs[attrName]);
                scope[scopeName] = function(locals) {
                  return parentGet(parentScope, locals);
                }
                break;
              }

              default: {
                throw Error('Invalid isolate scope definition for directive ' +
                    newIsolateScopeDirective.name + ': ' + definiton);
              }
            }
          });
        }

        if (controllerDirectives) {
          forEach(controllerDirectives, function(directive) {
            var locals = {
              $scope: scope,
              $element: $element,
              $attrs: attrs,
              $transclude: boundTranscludeFn
            };

            controller = directive.controller;
            if (controller == '@') {
              controller = attrs[directive.name];
            }

            $element.data(
                '$' + directive.name + 'Controller',
                $controller(controller, locals));
          });
        }

PRELINKING

        for(i = 0, ii = preLinkFns.length; i < ii; i++) {
          try {
            linkFn = preLinkFns[i];
            linkFn(scope, $element, attrs,
                linkFn.require && getControllers(linkFn.require, $element));
          } catch (e) {
            $exceptionHandler(e, startingTag($element));
          }
        }

RECURSION

        childLinkFn && childLinkFn(scope, linkNode.childNodes, undefined, boundTranscludeFn);

POSTLINKING

        for(i = 0, ii = postLinkFns.length; i < ii; i++) {
          try {
            linkFn = postLinkFns[i];
            linkFn(scope, $element, attrs,
                linkFn.require && getControllers(linkFn.require, $element));
          } catch (e) {
            $exceptionHandler(e, startingTag($element));
          }
        }
      }
    }

looks up the directive and decorates it with exception handling and proper parameters. We call this the boundDirective.

@param {string} name name of the directive to look up.

@param {string} location The directive must be found in specific format. String containing any of theses characters:

  • E: element name
  • `A': attribute
  • C: class
  • M: comment

    @returns true if directive was added.

    function addDirective(tDirectives, name, location, maxPriority) {
      var match = false;
      if (hasDirectives.hasOwnProperty(name)) {
        for(var directive, directives = $injector.get(name + Suffix),
            i = 0, ii = directives.length; i<ii; i++) {
          try {
            directive = directives[i];
            if ( (maxPriority === undefined || maxPriority > directive.priority) &&
                 directive.restrict.indexOf(location) != -1) {
              tDirectives.push(directive);
              match = true;
            }
          } catch(e) { $exceptionHandler(e); }
        }
      }
      return match;
    }

When the element is replaced with HTML template then the new attributes on the template need to be merged with the existing attributes in the DOM. The desired effect is to have both of the attributes present.

@param {object} dst destination attributes (original DOM)

@param {object} src source attributes (from the directive template)

    function mergeTemplateAttributes(dst, src) {
      var srcAttr = src.$attr,
          dstAttr = dst.$attr,
          $element = dst.$$element;

reapply the old attributes to the new element

      forEach(dst, function(value, key) {
        if (key.charAt(0) != '$') {
          if (src[key]) {
            value += (key === 'style' ? ';' : ' ') + src[key];
          }
          dst.$set(key, value, true, srcAttr[key]);
        }
      });

copy the new attributes on the old attrs object

      forEach(src, function(value, key) {
        if (key == 'class') {
          safeAddClass($element, value);
          dst['class'] = (dst['class'] ? dst['class'] + ' ' : '') + value;
        } else if (key == 'style') {
          $element.attr('style', $element.attr('style') + ';' + value);
        } else if (key.charAt(0) != '$' && !dst.hasOwnProperty(key)) {
          dst[key] = value;
          dstAttr[key] = srcAttr[key];
        }
      });
    }


    function compileTemplateUrl(directives, beforeTemplateNodeLinkFn, $compileNode, tAttrs,
        $rootElement, replace, childTranscludeFn) {
      var linkQueue = [],
          afterTemplateNodeLinkFn,
          afterTemplateChildLinkFn,
          beforeTemplateCompileNode = $compileNode[0],
          origAsyncDirective = directives.shift(),

The fact that we have to copy and patch the directive seems wrong!

          derivedSyncDirective = extend({}, origAsyncDirective, {
            controller: null, templateUrl: null, transclude: null, scope: null
          });

      $compileNode.html('');

      $http.get(origAsyncDirective.templateUrl, {cache: $templateCache}).
        success(function(content) {
          var compileNode, tempTemplateAttrs, $template;

          content = denormalizeTemplate(content);

          if (replace) {
            $template = jqLite('<div>' + trim(content) + '</div>').contents();
            compileNode = $template[0];

            if ($template.length != 1 || compileNode.nodeType !== 1) {
              throw new Error(MULTI_ROOT_TEMPLATE_ERROR + content);
            }

            tempTemplateAttrs = {$attr: {}};
            replaceWith($rootElement, $compileNode, compileNode);
            collectDirectives(compileNode, directives, tempTemplateAttrs);
            mergeTemplateAttributes(tAttrs, tempTemplateAttrs);
          } else {
            compileNode = beforeTemplateCompileNode;
            $compileNode.html(content);
          }

          directives.unshift(derivedSyncDirective);
          afterTemplateNodeLinkFn = applyDirectivesToNode(directives, compileNode, tAttrs, childTranscludeFn);
          afterTemplateChildLinkFn = compileNodes($compileNode[0].childNodes, childTranscludeFn);


          while(linkQueue.length) {
            var controller = linkQueue.pop(),
                linkRootElement = linkQueue.pop(),
                beforeTemplateLinkNode = linkQueue.pop(),
                scope = linkQueue.pop(),
                linkNode = compileNode;

            if (beforeTemplateLinkNode !== beforeTemplateCompileNode) {

it was cloned therefore we have to clone as well.

              linkNode = JQLiteClone(compileNode);
              replaceWith(linkRootElement, jqLite(beforeTemplateLinkNode), linkNode);
            }

            afterTemplateNodeLinkFn(function() {
              beforeTemplateNodeLinkFn(afterTemplateChildLinkFn, scope, linkNode, $rootElement, controller);
            }, scope, linkNode, $rootElement, controller);
          }
          linkQueue = null;
        }).
        error(function(response, code, headers, config) {
          throw Error('Failed to load template: ' + config.url);
        });

      return function delayedNodeLinkFn(ignoreChildLinkFn, scope, node, rootElement, controller) {
        if (linkQueue) {
          linkQueue.push(scope);
          linkQueue.push(node);
          linkQueue.push(rootElement);
          linkQueue.push(controller);
        } else {
          afterTemplateNodeLinkFn(function() {
            beforeTemplateNodeLinkFn(afterTemplateChildLinkFn, scope, node, rootElement, controller);
          }, scope, node, rootElement, controller);
        }
      };
    }

Sorting function for bound directives.

    function byPriority(a, b) {
      return b.priority - a.priority;
    }


    function assertNoDuplicate(what, previousDirective, directive, element) {
      if (previousDirective) {
        throw Error('Multiple directives [' + previousDirective.name + ', ' +
          directive.name + '] asking for ' + what + ' on: ' +  startingTag(element));
      }
    }


    function addTextInterpolateDirective(directives, text) {
      var interpolateFn = $interpolate(text, true);
      if (interpolateFn) {
        directives.push({
          priority: 0,
          compile: valueFn(function textInterpolateLinkFn(scope, node) {
            var parent = node.parent(),
                bindings = parent.data('$binding') || [];
            bindings.push(interpolateFn);
            safeAddClass(parent.data('$binding', bindings), 'ng-binding');
            scope.$watch(interpolateFn, function interpolateFnWatchAction(value) {
              node[0].nodeValue = value;
            });
          })
        });
      }
    }


    function addAttrInterpolateDirective(node, directives, value, name) {
      var interpolateFn = $interpolate(value, true);

no interpolation found -> ignore

      if (!interpolateFn) return;


      directives.push({
        priority: 100,
        compile: valueFn(function attrInterpolateLinkFn(scope, element, attr) {
          var $$observers = (attr.$$observers || (attr.$$observers = {}));

          if (name === 'class') {

we need to interpolate classes again, in the case the element was replaced and therefore the two class attrs got merged - we want to interpolate the result

            interpolateFn = $interpolate(attr[name], true);
          }

          attr[name] = undefined;
          ($$observers[name] || ($$observers[name] = [])).$$inter = true;
          (attr.$$observers && attr.$$observers[name].$$scope || scope).
            $watch(interpolateFn, function interpolateFnWatchAction(value) {
              attr.$set(name, value);
            });
        })
      });
    }

This is a special jqLite.replaceWith, which can replace items which have no parents, provided that the containing jqLite collection is provided.

@param {JqLite=} $rootElement The root of the compile tree. Used so that we can replace nodes in the root of the tree.

@param {JqLite} $element The jqLite element which we are going to replace. We keep the shell, but replace its DOM node reference.

@param {Node} newNode The new DOM node.

    function replaceWith($rootElement, $element, newNode) {
      var oldNode = $element[0],
          parent = oldNode.parentNode,
          i, ii;

      if ($rootElement) {
        for(i = 0, ii = $rootElement.length; i < ii; i++) {
          if ($rootElement[i] == oldNode) {
            $rootElement[i] = newNode;
            break;
          }
        }
      }

      if (parent) {
        parent.replaceChild(newNode, oldNode);
      }

      newNode[jqLite.expando] = oldNode[jqLite.expando];
      $element[0] = newNode;
    }
  }];
}

var PREFIX_REGEXP = /^(x[\:\-_]|data[\:\-_])/i;

Converts all accepted directives format into proper directive name. All of these will become 'myDirective': my:DiRective my-directive x-my-directive data-my:directive

Also there is special case for Moz prefix starting with upper case letter.

@param name Name to normalize

function directiveNormalize(name) {
  return camelCase(name.replace(PREFIX_REGEXP, ''));
}

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$compile.directive.Attributes

@description

A shared object between directive compile / linking functions which contains normalized DOM element attributes. The the values reflect current binding state {{ }}. The normalization is needed since all of these are treated as equivalent in Angular:

      &lt;span ng:bind=&quot;a&quot; ng-bind=&quot;a&quot; data-ng-bind=&quot;a&quot; x-ng-bind=&quot;a&quot;&gt; 

@ngdoc property

@name ng.$compile.directive.Attributes#$attr

@propertyOf ng.$compile.directive.Attributes

@returns {object} A map of DOM element attribute names to the normalized name. This is needed to do reverse lookup from normalized name back to actual name.

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$compile.directive.Attributes#$set

@methodOf ng.$compile.directive.Attributes

@function

@description Set DOM element attribute value.

@param {string} name Normalized element attribute name of the property to modify. The name is revers translated using the {@link ng.$compile.directive.Attributes#$attr $attr} property to the original name.

@param {string} value Value to set the attribute to.

Closure compiler type information

function nodesetLinkingFn(

angular.Scope scope, NodeList nodeList, Element rootElement, function(Function) boundTranscludeFn

){}

function directiveLinkingFn(

nodesetLinkingFn nodesetLinkingFn, angular.Scope scope, Node node, Element rootElement, function(Function) boundTranscludeFn

){}

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$controllerProvider

@description The {@link ng.$controller $controller service} is used by Angular to create new controllers.

This provider allows controller registration via the {@link ng.$controllerProvider#register register} method.

function $ControllerProvider() {
  var controllers = {};

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$controllerProvider#register

@methodOf ng.$controllerProvider

@param {string} name Controller name

@param {Function|Array} constructor Controller constructor fn (optionally decorated with DI annotations in the array notation).

  this.register = function(name, constructor) {
    if (isObject(name)) {
      extend(controllers, name)
    } else {
      controllers[name] = constructor;
    }
  };


  this.$get = ['$injector', '$window', function($injector, $window) {

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$controller

@requires $injector

@param {Function|string} constructor If called with a function then it's considered to be the controller constructor function. Otherwise it's considered to be a string which is used to retrieve the controller constructor using the following steps:

* check if a controller with given name is registered via `$controllerProvider` * check if evaluating the string on the current scope returns a constructor * check `window[constructor]` on the global `window` object 

@param {Object} locals Injection locals for Controller.

@return {Object} Instance of given controller.

@description $controller service is responsible for instantiating controllers.

It's just a simple call to {@link AUTO.$injector $injector}, but extracted into a service, so that one can override this service with {@link https://gist.github.com/1649788 BC version}.

    return function(constructor, locals) {
      if(isString(constructor)) {
        var name = constructor;
        constructor = controllers.hasOwnProperty(name)
            ? controllers[name]
            : getter(locals.$scope, name, true) || getter($window, name, true);

        assertArgFn(constructor, name, true);
      }

      return $injector.instantiate(constructor, locals);
    };
  }];
}

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$document

@requires $window

@description A {@link angular.element jQuery (lite)}-wrapped reference to the browser's window.document element.

function $DocumentProvider(){
  this.$get = ['$window', function(window){
    return jqLite(window.document);
  }];
}

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$exceptionHandler

@requires $log

@description Any uncaught exception in angular expressions is delegated to this service. The default implementation simply delegates to $log.error which logs it into the browser console.

In unit tests, if angular-mocks.js is loaded, this service is overridden by {@link ngMock.$exceptionHandler mock $exceptionHandler} which aids in testing.

@param {Error} exception Exception associated with the error.

@param {string=} cause optional information about the context in which the error was thrown.

function $ExceptionHandlerProvider() {
  this.$get = ['$log', function($log){
    return function(exception, cause) {
      $log.error.apply($log, arguments);
    };
  }];
}

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$interpolateProvider

@function

@description

Used for configuring the interpolation markup. Defaults to {{ and }}.

function $InterpolateProvider() {
  var startSymbol = '{{';
  var endSymbol = '}}';

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$interpolateProvider#startSymbol

@methodOf ng.$interpolateProvider

@description Symbol to denote start of expression in the interpolated string. Defaults to {{.

@param {string=} value new value to set the starting symbol to.

@returns {string|self} Returns the symbol when used as getter and self if used as setter.

  this.startSymbol = function(value){
    if (value) {
      startSymbol = value;
      return this;
    } else {
      return startSymbol;
    }
  };

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$interpolateProvider#endSymbol

@methodOf ng.$interpolateProvider

@description Symbol to denote the end of expression in the interpolated string. Defaults to }}.

@param {string=} value new value to set the ending symbol to.

@returns {string|self} Returns the symbol when used as getter and self if used as setter.

  this.endSymbol = function(value){
    if (value) {
      endSymbol = value;
      return this;
    } else {
      return endSymbol;
    }
  };


  this.$get = ['$parse', function($parse) {
    var startSymbolLength = startSymbol.length,
        endSymbolLength = endSymbol.length;

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$interpolate

@function

@requires $parse

@description

Compiles a string with markup into an interpolation function. This service is used by the HTML {@link ng.$compile $compile} service for data binding. See {@link ng.$interpolateProvider $interpolateProvider} for configuring the interpolation markup.

   &lt;pre&gt;      var $interpolate = ...; // injected      var exp = $interpolate(&#39;Hello {{name}}!&#39;);      expect(exp({name:&#39;Angular&#39;}).toEqual(&#39;Hello Angular!&#39;);    &lt;/pre&gt; 

@param {string} text The text with markup to interpolate.

@param {boolean=} mustHaveExpression if set to true then the interpolation string must have embedded expression in order to return an interpolation function. Strings with no embedded expression will return null for the interpolation function.

@returns {function(context)} an interpolation function which is used to compute the interpolated string. The function has these parameters:

* `context`: an object against which any expressions embedded in the strings are evaluated   against. 
    function $interpolate(text, mustHaveExpression) {
      var startIndex,
          endIndex,
          index = 0,
          parts = [],
          length = text.length,
          hasInterpolation = false,
          fn,
          exp,
          concat = [];

      while(index < length) {
        if ( ((startIndex = text.indexOf(startSymbol, index)) != -1) &&
             ((endIndex = text.indexOf(endSymbol, startIndex + startSymbolLength)) != -1) ) {
          (index != startIndex) && parts.push(text.substring(index, startIndex));
          parts.push(fn = $parse(exp = text.substring(startIndex + startSymbolLength, endIndex)));
          fn.exp = exp;
          index = endIndex + endSymbolLength;
          hasInterpolation = true;
        } else {

we did not find anything, so we have to add the remainder to the parts array

          (index != length) && parts.push(text.substring(index));
          index = length;
        }
      }

      if (!(length = parts.length)) {

we added, nothing, must have been an empty string.

        parts.push('');
        length = 1;
      }

      if (!mustHaveExpression  || hasInterpolation) {
        concat.length = length;
        fn = function(context) {
          for(var i = 0, ii = length, part; i<ii; i++) {
            if (typeof (part = parts[i]) == 'function') {
              part = part(context);
              if (part == null || part == undefined) {
                part = '';
              } else if (typeof part != 'string') {
                part = toJson(part);
              }
            }
            concat[i] = part;
          }
          return concat.join('');
        };
        fn.exp = text;
        fn.parts = parts;
        return fn;
      }
    }

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$interpolate#startSymbol

@methodOf ng.$interpolate

@description Symbol to denote the start of expression in the interpolated string. Defaults to {{.

Use {@link ng.$interpolateProvider#startSymbol $interpolateProvider#startSymbol} to change the symbol.

@returns {string} start symbol.

    $interpolate.startSymbol = function() {
      return startSymbol;
    }

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$interpolate#endSymbol

@methodOf ng.$interpolate

@description Symbol to denote the end of expression in the interpolated string. Defaults to }}.

Use {@link ng.$interpolateProvider#endSymbol $interpolateProvider#endSymbol} to change the symbol.

@returns {string} start symbol.

    $interpolate.endSymbol = function() {
      return endSymbol;
    }

    return $interpolate;
  }];
}

var URL_MATCH = /^([^:]+):\/\/(\w+:{0,1}\w*@)?(\{?[\w\.-]*\}?)(:([0-9]+))?(\/[^\?#]*)?(\?([^#]*))?(#(.*))?$/,
    PATH_MATCH = /^([^\?#]*)?(\?([^#]*))?(#(.*))?$/,
    HASH_MATCH = PATH_MATCH,
    DEFAULT_PORTS = {'http': 80, 'https': 443, 'ftp': 21};

Encode path using encodeUriSegment, ignoring forward slashes

@param {string} path Path to encode

@returns {string}

function encodePath(path) {
  var segments = path.split('/'),
      i = segments.length;

  while (i--) {
    segments[i] = encodeUriSegment(segments[i]);
  }

  return segments.join('/');
}

function stripHash(url) {
  return url.split('#')[0];
}


function matchUrl(url, obj) {
  var match = URL_MATCH.exec(url);

  match = {
      protocol: match[1],
      host: match[3],
      port: int(match[5]) || DEFAULT_PORTS[match[1]] || null,
      path: match[6] || '/',
      search: match[8],
      hash: match[10]
    };

  if (obj) {
    obj.$$protocol = match.protocol;
    obj.$$host = match.host;
    obj.$$port = match.port;
  }

  return match;
}


function composeProtocolHostPort(protocol, host, port) {
  return protocol + '://' + host + (port == DEFAULT_PORTS[protocol] ? '' : ':' + port);
}


function pathPrefixFromBase(basePath) {
  return basePath.substr(0, basePath.lastIndexOf('/'));
}


function convertToHtml5Url(url, basePath, hashPrefix) {
  var match = matchUrl(url);

already html5 url

  if (decodeURIComponent(match.path) != basePath || isUndefined(match.hash) ||
      match.hash.indexOf(hashPrefix) !== 0) {
    return url;

convert hashbang url -> html5 url

  } else {
    return composeProtocolHostPort(match.protocol, match.host, match.port) +
           pathPrefixFromBase(basePath) + match.hash.substr(hashPrefix.length);
  }
}


function convertToHashbangUrl(url, basePath, hashPrefix) {
  var match = matchUrl(url);

already hashbang url

  if (decodeURIComponent(match.path) == basePath && !isUndefined(match.hash) &&
      match.hash.indexOf(hashPrefix) === 0) {
    return url;

convert html5 url -> hashbang url

  } else {
    var search = match.search && '?' + match.search || '',
        hash = match.hash && '#' + match.hash || '',
        pathPrefix = pathPrefixFromBase(basePath),
        path = match.path.substr(pathPrefix.length);

    if (match.path.indexOf(pathPrefix) !== 0) {
      throw Error('Invalid url "' + url + '", missing path prefix "' + pathPrefix + '" !');
    }

    return composeProtocolHostPort(match.protocol, match.host, match.port) + basePath +
           '#' + hashPrefix + path + search + hash;
  }
}

LocationUrl represents an url This object is exposed as $location service when HTML5 mode is enabled and supported

@constructor

@param {string} url HTML5 url

@param {string} pathPrefix

function LocationUrl(url, pathPrefix, appBaseUrl) {
  pathPrefix = pathPrefix || '';

Parse given html5 (regular) url string into properties

@param {string} newAbsoluteUrl HTML5 url

@private

  this.$$parse = function(newAbsoluteUrl) {
    var match = matchUrl(newAbsoluteUrl, this);

    if (match.path.indexOf(pathPrefix) !== 0) {
      throw Error('Invalid url "' + newAbsoluteUrl + '", missing path prefix "' + pathPrefix + '" !');
    }

    this.$$path = decodeURIComponent(match.path.substr(pathPrefix.length));
    this.$$search = parseKeyValue(match.search);
    this.$$hash = match.hash && decodeURIComponent(match.hash) || '';

    this.$$compose();
  };

Compose url and update absUrl property

@private

  this.$$compose = function() {
    var search = toKeyValue(this.$$search),
        hash = this.$$hash ? '#' + encodeUriSegment(this.$$hash) : '';

    this.$$url = encodePath(this.$$path) + (search ? '?' + search : '') + hash;
    this.$$absUrl = composeProtocolHostPort(this.$$protocol, this.$$host, this.$$port) +
                    pathPrefix + this.$$url;
  };


  this.$$rewriteAppUrl = function(absoluteLinkUrl) {
    if(absoluteLinkUrl.indexOf(appBaseUrl) == 0) {
      return absoluteLinkUrl;
    }
  }


  this.$$parse(url);
}

LocationHashbangUrl represents url This object is exposed as $location service when html5 history api is disabled or not supported

@constructor

@param {string} url Legacy url

@param {string} hashPrefix Prefix for hash part (containing path and search)

function LocationHashbangUrl(url, hashPrefix, appBaseUrl) {
  var basePath;

Parse given hashbang url into properties

@param {string} url Hashbang url

@private

  this.$$parse = function(url) {
    var match = matchUrl(url, this);


    if (match.hash && match.hash.indexOf(hashPrefix) !== 0) {
      throw Error('Invalid url "' + url + '", missing hash prefix "' + hashPrefix + '" !');
    }

    basePath = match.path + (match.search ? '?' + match.search : '');
    match = HASH_MATCH.exec((match.hash || '').substr(hashPrefix.length));
    if (match[1]) {
      this.$$path = (match[1].charAt(0) == '/' ? '' : '/') + decodeURIComponent(match[1]);
    } else {
      this.$$path = '';
    }

    this.$$search = parseKeyValue(match[3]);
    this.$$hash = match[5] && decodeURIComponent(match[5]) || '';

    this.$$compose();
  };

Compose hashbang url and update absUrl property

@private

  this.$$compose = function() {
    var search = toKeyValue(this.$$search),
        hash = this.$$hash ? '#' + encodeUriSegment(this.$$hash) : '';

    this.$$url = encodePath(this.$$path) + (search ? '?' + search : '') + hash;
    this.$$absUrl = composeProtocolHostPort(this.$$protocol, this.$$host, this.$$port) +
                    basePath + (this.$$url ? '#' + hashPrefix + this.$$url : '');
  };

  this.$$rewriteAppUrl = function(absoluteLinkUrl) {
    if(absoluteLinkUrl.indexOf(appBaseUrl) == 0) {
      return absoluteLinkUrl;
    }
  }


  this.$$parse(url);
}


LocationUrl.prototype = {

Has any change been replacing ?

@private

  $$replace: false,

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$location#absUrl

@methodOf ng.$location

@description This method is getter only.

Return full url representation with all segments encoded according to rules specified in {@link http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt RFC 3986}.

@return {string} full url

  absUrl: locationGetter('$$absUrl'),

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$location#url

@methodOf ng.$location

@description This method is getter / setter.

Return url (e.g. /path?a=b#hash) when called without any parameter.

Change path, search and hash, when called with parameter and return $location.

@param {string=} url New url without base prefix (e.g. /path?a=b#hash)

@return {string} url

  url: function(url, replace) {
    if (isUndefined(url))
      return this.$$url;

    var match = PATH_MATCH.exec(url);
    if (match[1]) this.path(decodeURIComponent(match[1]));
    if (match[2] || match[1]) this.search(match[3] || '');
    this.hash(match[5] || '', replace);

    return this;
  },

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$location#protocol

@methodOf ng.$location

@description This method is getter only.

Return protocol of current url.

@return {string} protocol of current url

  protocol: locationGetter('$$protocol'),

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$location#host

@methodOf ng.$location

@description This method is getter only.

Return host of current url.

@return {string} host of current url.

  host: locationGetter('$$host'),

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$location#port

@methodOf ng.$location

@description This method is getter only.

Return port of current url.

@return {Number} port

  port: locationGetter('$$port'),

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$location#path

@methodOf ng.$location

@description This method is getter / setter.

Return path of current url when called without any parameter.

Change path when called with parameter and return $location.

Note: Path should always begin with forward slash (/), this method will add the forward slash if it is missing.

@param {string=} path New path

@return {string} path

  path: locationGetterSetter('$$path', function(path) {
    return path.charAt(0) == '/' ? path : '/' + path;
  }),

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$location#search

@methodOf ng.$location

@description This method is getter / setter.

Return search part (as object) of current url when called without any parameter.

Change search part when called with parameter and return $location.

@param {string|object<string,string>=} search New search params - string or hash object

@param {string=} paramValue If search is a string, then paramValue will override only a single search parameter. If the value is null, the parameter will be deleted.

@return {string} search

  search: function(search, paramValue) {
    if (isUndefined(search))
      return this.$$search;

    if (isDefined(paramValue)) {
      if (paramValue === null) {
        delete this.$$search[search];
      } else {
        this.$$search[search] = paramValue;
      }
    } else {
      this.$$search = isString(search) ? parseKeyValue(search) : search;
    }

    this.$$compose();
    return this;
  },

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$location#hash

@methodOf ng.$location

@description This method is getter / setter.

Return hash fragment when called without any parameter.

Change hash fragment when called with parameter and return $location.

@param {string=} hash New hash fragment

@return {string} hash

  hash: locationGetterSetter('$$hash', identity),

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$location#replace

@methodOf ng.$location

@description If called, all changes to $location during current $digest will be replacing current history record, instead of adding new one.

  replace: function() {
    this.$$replace = true;
    return this;
  }
};

LocationHashbangUrl.prototype = inherit(LocationUrl.prototype);

function LocationHashbangInHtml5Url(url, hashPrefix, appBaseUrl, baseExtra) {
  LocationHashbangUrl.apply(this, arguments);


  this.$$rewriteAppUrl = function(absoluteLinkUrl) {
    if (absoluteLinkUrl.indexOf(appBaseUrl) == 0) {
      return appBaseUrl + baseExtra + '#' + hashPrefix  + absoluteLinkUrl.substr(appBaseUrl.length);
    }
  }
}

LocationHashbangInHtml5Url.prototype = inherit(LocationHashbangUrl.prototype);

function locationGetter(property) {
  return function() {
    return this[property];
  };
}


function locationGetterSetter(property, preprocess) {
  return function(value) {
    if (isUndefined(value))
      return this[property];

    this[property] = preprocess(value);
    this.$$compose();

    return this;
  };
}

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$location

@requires $browser

@requires $sniffer

@requires $rootElement

@description The $location service parses the URL in the browser address bar (based on the {@link https://developer.mozilla.org/en/window.location window.location}) and makes the URL available to your application. Changes to the URL in the address bar are reflected into $location service and changes to $location are reflected into the browser address bar.

**The $location service:

  • Exposes the current URL in the browser address bar, so you can
    • Watch and observe the URL.
    • Change the URL.
  • Synchronizes the URL with the browser when the user
    • Changes the address bar.
    • Clicks the back or forward button (or clicks a History link).
    • Clicks on a link.
  • Represents the URL object as a set of methods (protocol, host, port, path, search, hash).

    For more information see {@link guide/dev_guide.services.$location Developer Guide: Angular Services: Using $location}

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$locationProvider

@description Use the $locationProvider to configure how the application deep linking paths are stored.

function $LocationProvider(){
  var hashPrefix = '',
      html5Mode = false;

@ngdoc property

@name ng.$locationProvider#hashPrefix

@methodOf ng.$locationProvider

@description

@param {string=} prefix Prefix for hash part (containing path and search)

@returns {*} current value if used as getter or itself (chaining) if used as setter

  this.hashPrefix = function(prefix) {
    if (isDefined(prefix)) {
      hashPrefix = prefix;
      return this;
    } else {
      return hashPrefix;
    }
  };

@ngdoc property

@name ng.$locationProvider#html5Mode

@methodOf ng.$locationProvider

@description

@param {string=} mode Use HTML5 strategy if available.

@returns {*} current value if used as getter or itself (chaining) if used as setter

  this.html5Mode = function(mode) {
    if (isDefined(mode)) {
      html5Mode = mode;
      return this;
    } else {
      return html5Mode;
    }
  };

  this.$get = ['$rootScope', '$browser', '$sniffer', '$rootElement',
      function( $rootScope,   $browser,   $sniffer,   $rootElement) {
    var $location,
        basePath,
        pathPrefix,
        initUrl = $browser.url(),
        initUrlParts = matchUrl(initUrl),
        appBaseUrl;

    if (html5Mode) {
      basePath = $browser.baseHref() || '/';
      pathPrefix = pathPrefixFromBase(basePath);
      appBaseUrl =
          composeProtocolHostPort(initUrlParts.protocol, initUrlParts.host, initUrlParts.port) +
          pathPrefix + '/';

      if ($sniffer.history) {
        $location = new LocationUrl(
          convertToHtml5Url(initUrl, basePath, hashPrefix),
          pathPrefix, appBaseUrl);
      } else {
        $location = new LocationHashbangInHtml5Url(
          convertToHashbangUrl(initUrl, basePath, hashPrefix),
          hashPrefix, appBaseUrl, basePath.substr(pathPrefix.length + 1));
      }
    } else {
      appBaseUrl =
          composeProtocolHostPort(initUrlParts.protocol, initUrlParts.host, initUrlParts.port) +
          (initUrlParts.path || '') +
          (initUrlParts.search ? ('?' + initUrlParts.search) : '') +
          '#' + hashPrefix + '/';

      $location = new LocationHashbangUrl(initUrl, hashPrefix, appBaseUrl);
    }

    $rootElement.bind('click', function(event) {

TODO(vojta): rewrite link when opening in new tab/window (in legacy browser) currently we open nice url link and redirect then

      if (event.ctrlKey || event.metaKey || event.which == 2) return;

      var elm = jqLite(event.target);

traverse the DOM up to find first A tag

      while (lowercase(elm[0].nodeName) !== 'a') {

ignore rewriting if no A tag (reached root element, or no parent - removed from document)

        if (elm[0] === $rootElement[0] || !(elm = elm.parent())[0]) return;
      }

      var absHref = elm.prop('href'),
          rewrittenUrl = $location.$$rewriteAppUrl(absHref);

      if (absHref && !elm.attr('target') && rewrittenUrl) {

update location manually

        $location.$$parse(rewrittenUrl);
        $rootScope.$apply();
        event.preventDefault();

hack to work around FF6 bug 684208 when scenario runner clicks on links

        window.angular['ff-684208-preventDefault'] = true;
      }
    });

rewrite hashbang url <> html5 url

    if ($location.absUrl() != initUrl) {
      $browser.url($location.absUrl(), true);
    }

update $location when $browser url changes

    $browser.onUrlChange(function(newUrl) {
      if ($location.absUrl() != newUrl) {
        $rootScope.$evalAsync(function() {
          var oldUrl = $location.absUrl();

          $location.$$parse(newUrl);
          afterLocationChange(oldUrl);
        });
        if (!$rootScope.$$phase) $rootScope.$digest();
      }
    });

update browser

    var changeCounter = 0;
    $rootScope.$watch(function $locationWatch() {
      var oldUrl = $browser.url();
      var currentReplace = $location.$$replace;

      if (!changeCounter || oldUrl != $location.absUrl()) {
        changeCounter++;
        $rootScope.$evalAsync(function() {
          if ($rootScope.$broadcast('$locationChangeStart', $location.absUrl(), oldUrl).
              defaultPrevented) {
            $location.$$parse(oldUrl);
          } else {
            $browser.url($location.absUrl(), currentReplace);
            afterLocationChange(oldUrl);
          }
        });
      }
      $location.$$replace = false;

      return changeCounter;
    });

    return $location;

    function afterLocationChange(oldUrl) {
      $rootScope.$broadcast('$locationChangeSuccess', $location.absUrl(), oldUrl);
    }
}];
}

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$log

@requires $window

@description Simple service for logging. Default implementation writes the message into the browser's console (if present).

The main purpose of this service is to simplify debugging and troubleshooting.

@example <example> <file name="script.js"> function LogCtrl($scope, $log) { $scope.$log = $log; $scope.message = 'Hello World!'; } </file> <file name="index.html"> <div ng-controller="LogCtrl"> <p>Reload this page with open console, enter text and hit the log button...</p> Message: <input type="text" ng-model="message"/> <button ng-click="$log.log(message)">log</button> <button ng-click="$log.warn(message)">warn</button> <button ng-click="$log.info(message)">info</button> <button ng-click="$log.error(message)">error</button> </div> </file> </example>

function $LogProvider(){
  this.$get = ['$window', function($window){
    return {

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$log#log

@methodOf ng.$log

@description Write a log message

      log: consoleLog('log'),

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$log#warn

@methodOf ng.$log

@description Write a warning message

      warn: consoleLog('warn'),

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$log#info

@methodOf ng.$log

@description Write an information message

      info: consoleLog('info'),

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$log#error

@methodOf ng.$log

@description Write an error message

      error: consoleLog('error')
    };

    function formatError(arg) {
      if (arg instanceof Error) {
        if (arg.stack) {
          arg = (arg.message && arg.stack.indexOf(arg.message) === -1)
              ? 'Error: ' + arg.message + '\n' + arg.stack
              : arg.stack;
        } else if (arg.sourceURL) {
          arg = arg.message + '\n' + arg.sourceURL + ':' + arg.line;
        }
      }
      return arg;
    }

    function consoleLog(type) {
      var console = $window.console || {},
          logFn = console[type] || console.log || noop;

      if (logFn.apply) {
        return function() {
          var args = [];
          forEach(arguments, function(arg) {
            args.push(formatError(arg));
          });
          return logFn.apply(console, args);
        };
      }

we are IE which either doesn't have window.console => this is noop and we do nothing, or we are IE where console.log doesn't have apply so we log at least first 2 args

      return function(arg1, arg2) {
        logFn(arg1, arg2);
      }
    }
  }];
}

var OPERATORS = {
    'null':function(){return null;},
    'true':function(){return true;},
    'false':function(){return false;},
    undefined:noop,
    '+':function(self, locals, a,b){
      a=a(self, locals); b=b(self, locals);
      if (isDefined(a)) {
        if (isDefined(b)) {
          return a + b;
        }
        return a;
      }
      return isDefined(b)?b:undefined;},
    '-':function(self, locals, a,b){a=a(self, locals); b=b(self, locals); return (isDefined(a)?a:0)-(isDefined(b)?b:0);},
    '*':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)*b(self, locals);},
    '/':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)/b(self, locals);},
    '%':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)%b(self, locals);},
    '^':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)^b(self, locals);},
    '=':noop,
    '==':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)==b(self, locals);},
    '!=':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)!=b(self, locals);},
    '<':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)<b(self, locals);},
    '>':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)>b(self, locals);},
    '<=':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)<=b(self, locals);},
    '>=':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)>=b(self, locals);},
    '&&':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)&&b(self, locals);},
    '||':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)||b(self, locals);},
    '&':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)&b(self, locals);},
&#39;|&#39;:function(self, locals, a,b){return a|b;}, 
    '|':function(self, locals, a,b){return b(self, locals)(self, locals, a(self, locals));},
    '!':function(self, locals, a){return !a(self, locals);}
};
var ESCAPE = {"n":"\n", "f":"\f", "r":"\r", "t":"\t", "v":"\v", "'":"'", '"':'"'};

function lex(text, csp){
  var tokens = [],
      token,
      index = 0,
      json = [],
      ch,
      lastCh = ':'; // can start regexp

  while (index < text.length) {
    ch = text.charAt(index);
    if (is('"\'')) {
      readString(ch);
    } else if (isNumber(ch) || is('.') && isNumber(peek())) {
      readNumber();
    } else if (isIdent(ch)) {
      readIdent();

identifiers can only be if the preceding char was a { or ,

      if (was('{,') && json[0]=='{' &&
         (token=tokens[tokens.length-1])) {
        token.json = token.text.indexOf('.') == -1;
      }
    } else if (is('(){}[].,;:')) {
      tokens.push({
        index:index,
        text:ch,
        json:(was(':[,') && is('{[')) || is('}]:,')
      });
      if (is('{[')) json.unshift(ch);
      if (is('}]')) json.shift();
      index++;
    } else if (isWhitespace(ch)) {
      index++;
      continue;
    } else {
      var ch2 = ch + peek(),
          fn = OPERATORS[ch],
          fn2 = OPERATORS[ch2];
      if (fn2) {
        tokens.push({index:index, text:ch2, fn:fn2});
        index += 2;
      } else if (fn) {
        tokens.push({index:index, text:ch, fn:fn, json: was('[,:') && is('+-')});
        index += 1;
      } else {
        throwError("Unexpected next character ", index, index+1);
      }
    }
    lastCh = ch;
  }
  return tokens;

  function is(chars) {
    return chars.indexOf(ch) != -1;
  }

  function was(chars) {
    return chars.indexOf(lastCh) != -1;
  }

  function peek() {
    return index + 1 < text.length ? text.charAt(index + 1) : false;
  }
  function isNumber(ch) {
    return '0' <= ch && ch <= '9';
  }
  function isWhitespace(ch) {
    return ch == ' ' || ch == '\r' || ch == '\t' ||
           ch == '\n' || ch == '\v' || ch == '\u00A0'; // IE treats non-breaking space as \u00A0
  }
  function isIdent(ch) {
    return 'a' <= ch && ch <= 'z' ||
           'A' <= ch && ch <= 'Z' ||
           '_' == ch || ch == '$';
  }
  function isExpOperator(ch) {
    return ch == '-' || ch == '+' || isNumber(ch);
  }

  function throwError(error, start, end) {
    end = end || index;
    throw Error("Lexer Error: " + error + " at column" +
        (isDefined(start)
            ? "s " + start +  "-" + index + " [" + text.substring(start, end) + "]"
            : " " + end) +
        " in expression [" + text + "].");
  }

  function readNumber() {
    var number = "";
    var start = index;
    while (index < text.length) {
      var ch = lowercase(text.charAt(index));
      if (ch == '.' || isNumber(ch)) {
        number += ch;
      } else {
        var peekCh = peek();
        if (ch == 'e' && isExpOperator(peekCh)) {
          number += ch;
        } else if (isExpOperator(ch) &&
            peekCh && isNumber(peekCh) &&
            number.charAt(number.length - 1) == 'e') {
          number += ch;
        } else if (isExpOperator(ch) &&
            (!peekCh || !isNumber(peekCh)) &&
            number.charAt(number.length - 1) == 'e') {
          throwError('Invalid exponent');
        } else {
          break;
        }
      }
      index++;
    }
    number = 1 * number;
    tokens.push({index:start, text:number, json:true,
      fn:function() {return number;}});
  }
  function readIdent() {
    var ident = "",
        start = index,
        lastDot, peekIndex, methodName;

    while (index < text.length) {
      var ch = text.charAt(index);
      if (ch == '.' || isIdent(ch) || isNumber(ch)) {
        if (ch == '.') lastDot = index;
        ident += ch;
      } else {
        break;
      }
      index++;
    }

check if this is not a method invocation and if it is back out to last dot

    if (lastDot) {
      peekIndex = index;
      while(peekIndex < text.length) {
        var ch = text.charAt(peekIndex);
        if (ch == '(') {
          methodName = ident.substr(lastDot - start + 1);
          ident = ident.substr(0, lastDot - start);
          index = peekIndex;
          break;
        }
        if(isWhitespace(ch)) {
          peekIndex++;
        } else {
          break;
        }
      }
    }


    var token = {
      index:start,
      text:ident
    };

    if (OPERATORS.hasOwnProperty(ident)) {
      token.fn = token.json = OPERATORS[ident];
    } else {
      var getter = getterFn(ident, csp);
      token.fn = extend(function(self, locals) {
        return (getter(self, locals));
      }, {
        assign: function(self, value) {
          return setter(self, ident, value);
        }
      });
    }

    tokens.push(token);

    if (methodName) {
      tokens.push({
        index:lastDot,
        text: '.',
        json: false
      });
      tokens.push({
        index: lastDot + 1,
        text: methodName,
        json: false
      });
    }
  }

  function readString(quote) {
    var start = index;
    index++;
    var string = "";
    var rawString = quote;
    var escape = false;
    while (index < text.length) {
      var ch = text.charAt(index);
      rawString += ch;
      if (escape) {
        if (ch == 'u') {
          var hex = text.substring(index + 1, index + 5);
          if (!hex.match(/[\da-f]{4}/i))
            throwError( "Invalid unicode escape [\\u" + hex + "]");
          index += 4;
          string += String.fromCharCode(parseInt(hex, 16));
        } else {
          var rep = ESCAPE[ch];
          if (rep) {
            string += rep;
          } else {
            string += ch;
          }
        }
        escape = false;
      } else if (ch == '\\') {
        escape = true;
      } else if (ch == quote) {
        index++;
        tokens.push({
          index:start,
          text:rawString,
          string:string,
          json:true,
          fn:function() { return string; }
        });
        return;
      } else {
        string += ch;
      }
      index++;
    }
    throwError("Unterminated quote", start);
  }
}

///////////////////////////////////////

function parser(text, json, $filter, csp){
  var ZERO = valueFn(0),
      value,
      tokens = lex(text, csp),
      assignment = _assignment,
      functionCall = _functionCall,
      fieldAccess = _fieldAccess,
      objectIndex = _objectIndex,
      filterChain = _filterChain;

  if(json){

The extra level of aliasing is here, just in case the lexer misses something, so that we prevent any accidental execution in JSON.

    assignment = logicalOR;
    functionCall =
      fieldAccess =
      objectIndex =
      filterChain =
        function() { throwError("is not valid json", {text:text, index:0}); };
    value = primary();
  } else {
    value = statements();
  }
  if (tokens.length !== 0) {
    throwError("is an unexpected token", tokens[0]);
  }
  return value;

/////////////////////////////////

  function throwError(msg, token) {
    throw Error("Syntax Error: Token '" + token.text +
      "' " + msg + " at column " +
      (token.index + 1) + " of the expression [" +
      text + "] starting at [" + text.substring(token.index) + "].");
  }

  function peekToken() {
    if (tokens.length === 0)
      throw Error("Unexpected end of expression: " + text);
    return tokens[0];
  }

  function peek(e1, e2, e3, e4) {
    if (tokens.length > 0) {
      var token = tokens[0];
      var t = token.text;
      if (t==e1 || t==e2 || t==e3 || t==e4 ||
          (!e1 && !e2 && !e3 && !e4)) {
        return token;
      }
    }
    return false;
  }

  function expect(e1, e2, e3, e4){
    var token = peek(e1, e2, e3, e4);
    if (token) {
      if (json && !token.json) {
        throwError("is not valid json", token);
      }
      tokens.shift();
      return token;
    }
    return false;
  }

  function consume(e1){
    if (!expect(e1)) {
      throwError("is unexpected, expecting [" + e1 + "]", peek());
    }
  }

  function unaryFn(fn, right) {
    return function(self, locals) {
      return fn(self, locals, right);
    };
  }

  function binaryFn(left, fn, right) {
    return function(self, locals) {
      return fn(self, locals, left, right);
    };
  }

  function statements() {
    var statements = [];
    while(true) {
      if (tokens.length > 0 && !peek('}', ')', ';', ']'))
        statements.push(filterChain());
      if (!expect(';')) {

optimize for the common case where there is only one statement. TODO(size): maybe we should not support multiple statements?

        return statements.length == 1
          ? statements[0]
          : function(self, locals){
            var value;
            for ( var i = 0; i < statements.length; i++) {
              var statement = statements[i];
              if (statement)
                value = statement(self, locals);
            }
            return value;
          };
      }
    }
  }

  function _filterChain() {
    var left = expression();
    var token;
    while(true) {
      if ((token = expect('|'))) {
        left = binaryFn(left, token.fn, filter());
      } else {
        return left;
      }
    }
  }

  function filter() {
    var token = expect();
    var fn = $filter(token.text);
    var argsFn = [];
    while(true) {
      if ((token = expect(':'))) {
        argsFn.push(expression());
      } else {
        var fnInvoke = function(self, locals, input){
          var args = [input];
          for ( var i = 0; i < argsFn.length; i++) {
            args.push(argsFn[i](self, locals));
          }
          return fn.apply(self, args);
        };
        return function() {
          return fnInvoke;
        };
      }
    }
  }

  function expression() {
    return assignment();
  }

  function _assignment() {
    var left = logicalOR();
    var right;
    var token;
    if ((token = expect('='))) {
      if (!left.assign) {
        throwError("implies assignment but [" +
          text.substring(0, token.index) + "] can not be assigned to", token);
      }
      right = logicalOR();
      return function(self, locals){
        return left.assign(self, right(self, locals), locals);
      };
    } else {
      return left;
    }
  }

  function logicalOR() {
    var left = logicalAND();
    var token;
    while(true) {
      if ((token = expect('||'))) {
        left = binaryFn(left, token.fn, logicalAND());
      } else {
        return left;
      }
    }
  }

  function logicalAND() {
    var left = equality();
    var token;
    if ((token = expect('&&'))) {
      left = binaryFn(left, token.fn, logicalAND());
    }
    return left;
  }

  function equality() {
    var left = relational();
    var token;
    if ((token = expect('==','!='))) {
      left = binaryFn(left, token.fn, equality());
    }
    return left;
  }

  function relational() {
    var left = additive();
    var token;
    if ((token = expect('<', '>', '<=', '>='))) {
      left = binaryFn(left, token.fn, relational());
    }
    return left;
  }

  function additive() {
    var left = multiplicative();
    var token;
    while ((token = expect('+','-'))) {
      left = binaryFn(left, token.fn, multiplicative());
    }
    return left;
  }

  function multiplicative() {
    var left = unary();
    var token;
    while ((token = expect('*','/','%'))) {
      left = binaryFn(left, token.fn, unary());
    }
    return left;
  }

  function unary() {
    var token;
    if (expect('+')) {
      return primary();
    } else if ((token = expect('-'))) {
      return binaryFn(ZERO, token.fn, unary());
    } else if ((token = expect('!'))) {
      return unaryFn(token.fn, unary());
    } else {
      return primary();
    }
  }


  function primary() {
    var primary;
    if (expect('(')) {
      primary = filterChain();
      consume(')');
    } else if (expect('[')) {
      primary = arrayDeclaration();
    } else if (expect('{')) {
      primary = object();
    } else {
      var token = expect();
      primary = token.fn;
      if (!primary) {
        throwError("not a primary expression", token);
      }
    }

    var next, context;
    while ((next = expect('(', '[', '.'))) {
      if (next.text === '(') {
        primary = functionCall(primary, context);
        context = null;
      } else if (next.text === '[') {
        context = primary;
        primary = objectIndex(primary);
      } else if (next.text === '.') {
        context = primary;
        primary = fieldAccess(primary);
      } else {
        throwError("IMPOSSIBLE");
      }
    }
    return primary;
  }

  function _fieldAccess(object) {
    var field = expect().text;
    var getter = getterFn(field, csp);
    return extend(
        function(self, locals) {
          return getter(object(self, locals), locals);
        },
        {
          assign:function(self, value, locals) {
            return setter(object(self, locals), field, value);
          }
        }
    );
  }

  function _objectIndex(obj) {
    var indexFn = expression();
    consume(']');
    return extend(
      function(self, locals){
        var o = obj(self, locals),
            i = indexFn(self, locals),
            v, p;

        if (!o) return undefined;
        v = o[i];
        if (v && v.then) {
          p = v;
          if (!('$$v' in v)) {
            p.$$v = undefined;
            p.then(function(val) { p.$$v = val; });
          }
          v = v.$$v;
        }
        return v;
      }, {
        assign:function(self, value, locals){
          return obj(self, locals)[indexFn(self, locals)] = value;
        }
      });
  }

  function _functionCall(fn, contextGetter) {
    var argsFn = [];
    if (peekToken().text != ')') {
      do {
        argsFn.push(expression());
      } while (expect(','));
    }
    consume(')');
    return function(self, locals){
      var args = [],
          context = contextGetter ? contextGetter(self, locals) : self;

      for ( var i = 0; i < argsFn.length; i++) {
        args.push(argsFn[i](self, locals));
      }
      var fnPtr = fn(self, locals) || noop;

IE stupidity!

      return fnPtr.apply
          ? fnPtr.apply(context, args)
          : fnPtr(args[0], args[1], args[2], args[3], args[4]);
    };
  }

This is used with json array declaration

  function arrayDeclaration () {
    var elementFns = [];
    if (peekToken().text != ']') {
      do {
        elementFns.push(expression());
      } while (expect(','));
    }
    consume(']');
    return function(self, locals){
      var array = [];
      for ( var i = 0; i < elementFns.length; i++) {
        array.push(elementFns[i](self, locals));
      }
      return array;
    };
  }

  function object () {
    var keyValues = [];
    if (peekToken().text != '}') {
      do {
        var token = expect(),
        key = token.string || token.text;
        consume(":");
        var value = expression();
        keyValues.push({key:key, value:value});
      } while (expect(','));
    }
    consume('}');
    return function(self, locals){
      var object = {};
      for ( var i = 0; i < keyValues.length; i++) {
        var keyValue = keyValues[i];
        var value = keyValue.value(self, locals);
        object[keyValue.key] = value;
      }
      return object;
    };
  }
}

//////////////////////////////////////////////// Parser helper functions ////////////////////////////////////////////////

function setter(obj, path, setValue) {
  var element = path.split('.');
  for (var i = 0; element.length > 1; i++) {
    var key = element.shift();
    var propertyObj = obj[key];
    if (!propertyObj) {
      propertyObj = {};
      obj[key] = propertyObj;
    }
    obj = propertyObj;
  }
  obj[element.shift()] = setValue;
  return setValue;
}

Return the value accesible from the object by path. Any undefined traversals are ignored

@param {Object} obj starting object

@param {string} path path to traverse

@param {boolean=true} bindFnToScope

@returns value as accesbile by path

TODO(misko): this function needs to be removed

function getter(obj, path, bindFnToScope) {
  if (!path) return obj;
  var keys = path.split('.');
  var key;
  var lastInstance = obj;
  var len = keys.length;

  for (var i = 0; i < len; i++) {
    key = keys[i];
    if (obj) {
      obj = (lastInstance = obj)[key];
    }
  }
  if (!bindFnToScope && isFunction(obj)) {
    return bind(lastInstance, obj);
  }
  return obj;
}

var getterFnCache = {};

Implementation of the "Black Hole" variant from: - http://jsperf.com/angularjs-parse-getter/4 - http://jsperf.com/path-evaluation-simplified/7

function cspSafeGetterFn(key0, key1, key2, key3, key4) {
  return function(scope, locals) {
    var pathVal = (locals && locals.hasOwnProperty(key0)) ? locals : scope,
        promise;

    if (pathVal === null || pathVal === undefined) return pathVal;

    pathVal = pathVal[key0];
    if (pathVal && pathVal.then) {
      if (!("$$v" in pathVal)) {
        promise = pathVal;
        promise.$$v = undefined;
        promise.then(function(val) { promise.$$v = val; });
      }
      pathVal = pathVal.$$v;
    }
    if (!key1 || pathVal === null || pathVal === undefined) return pathVal;

    pathVal = pathVal[key1];
    if (pathVal && pathVal.then) {
      if (!("$$v" in pathVal)) {
        promise = pathVal;
        promise.$$v = undefined;
        promise.then(function(val) { promise.$$v = val; });
      }
      pathVal = pathVal.$$v;
    }
    if (!key2 || pathVal === null || pathVal === undefined) return pathVal;

    pathVal = pathVal[key2];
    if (pathVal && pathVal.then) {
      if (!("$$v" in pathVal)) {
        promise = pathVal;
        promise.$$v = undefined;
        promise.then(function(val) { promise.$$v = val; });
      }
      pathVal = pathVal.$$v;
    }
    if (!key3 || pathVal === null || pathVal === undefined) return pathVal;

    pathVal = pathVal[key3];
    if (pathVal && pathVal.then) {
      if (!("$$v" in pathVal)) {
        promise = pathVal;
        promise.$$v = undefined;
        promise.then(function(val) { promise.$$v = val; });
      }
      pathVal = pathVal.$$v;
    }
    if (!key4 || pathVal === null || pathVal === undefined) return pathVal;

    pathVal = pathVal[key4];
    if (pathVal && pathVal.then) {
      if (!("$$v" in pathVal)) {
        promise = pathVal;
        promise.$$v = undefined;
        promise.then(function(val) { promise.$$v = val; });
      }
      pathVal = pathVal.$$v;
    }
    return pathVal;
  };
};

function getterFn(path, csp) {
  if (getterFnCache.hasOwnProperty(path)) {
    return getterFnCache[path];
  }

  var pathKeys = path.split('.'),
      pathKeysLength = pathKeys.length,
      fn;

  if (csp) {
    fn = (pathKeysLength < 6)
        ? cspSafeGetterFn(pathKeys[0], pathKeys[1], pathKeys[2], pathKeys[3], pathKeys[4])
        : function(scope, locals) {
          var i = 0, val
          do {
            val = cspSafeGetterFn(
                    pathKeys[i++], pathKeys[i++], pathKeys[i++], pathKeys[i++], pathKeys[i++]
                  )(scope, locals);

            locals = undefined; // clear after first iteration
            scope = val;
          } while (i < pathKeysLength);
          return val;
        }
  } else {
    var code = 'var l, fn, p;\n';
    forEach(pathKeys, function(key, index) {
      code += 'if(s === null || s === undefined) return s;\n' +
              'l=s;\n' +
              's='+ (index

we simply dereference 's' on any .dot notation

                      ? 's'

but if we are first then we check locals first, and if so read it first

                      : '((k&&k.hasOwnProperty("' + key + '"))?k:s)') + '["' + key + '"]' + ';\n' +
              'if (s && s.then) {\n' +
                ' if (!("$$v" in s)) {\n' +
                  ' p=s;\n' +
                  ' p.$$v = undefined;\n' +
                  ' p.then(function(v) {p.$$v=v;});\n' +
                  '}\n' +
                ' s=s.$$v\n' +
              '}\n';
    });
    code += 'return s;';
    fn = Function('s', 'k', code); // s=scope, k=locals
    fn.toString = function() { return code; };
  }

  return getterFnCache[path] = fn;
}

/////////////////////////////////

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$parse

@function

@description

Converts Angular {@link guide/expression expression} into a function.

<pre> var getter = $parse('user.name'); var setter = getter.assign; var context = {user:{name:'angular'}}; var locals = {user:{name:'local'}};

expect(getter(context)).toEqual('angular'); setter(context, 'newValue'); expect(context.user.name).toEqual('newValue'); expect(getter(context, locals)).toEqual('local'); </pre>

@param {string} expression String expression to compile.

@returns {function(context, locals)} a function which represents the compiled expression:

* `context` – `{object}` – an object against which any expressions embedded in the strings   are evaluated against (tipically a scope object). * `locals` – `{object=}` – local variables context object, useful for overriding values in   `context`. The return function also has an `assign` property, if the expression is assignable, which allows one to set values to expressions. 
function $ParseProvider() {
  var cache = {};
  this.$get = ['$filter', '$sniffer', function($filter, $sniffer) {
    return function(exp) {
      switch(typeof exp) {
        case 'string':
          return cache.hasOwnProperty(exp)
            ? cache[exp]
            : cache[exp] =  parser(exp, false, $filter, $sniffer.csp);
        case 'function':
          return exp;
        default:
          return noop;
      }
    };
  }];
}

@ngdoc service

@name ng.$q

@requires $rootScope

@description A promise/deferred implementation inspired by Kris Kowal's Q.

The CommonJS Promise proposal describes a promise as an interface for interacting with an object that represents the result of an action that is performed asynchronously, and may or may not be finished at any given point in time.

From the perspective of dealing with error handling, deferred and promise APIs are to asynchronous programming what try, catch and throw keywords are to synchronous programming.

<pre> // for the purpose of this example let's assume that variables $q and scope are // available in the current lexical scope (they could have been injected or passed in).

function asyncGreet(name) { var deferred = $q.defer();

 setTimeout(function() {    // since this fn executes async in a future turn of the event loop, we need to wrap    // our code into an $apply call so that the model changes are properly observed.    scope.$apply(function() {      if (okToGreet(name)) {        deferred.resolve(&#39;Hello, &#39; + name + &#39;!&#39;);      } else {        deferred.reject(&#39;Greeting &#39; + name + &#39; is not allowed.&#39;);      }    });  }, 1000);  return deferred.promise; 

}

var promise = asyncGreet('Robin Hood'); promise.then(function(greeting) { alert('Success: ' + greeting); }, function(reason) { alert('Failed: ' + reason); }); </pre>

At first it might not be obvious why this extra complexity is worth the trouble. The payoff comes in the way of guarantees that promise and deferred APIs make.

Additionally the promise api allows for composition that is very hard to do with the traditional callback (CPS) approach. For more on this please see the Q documentation especially the section on serial or parallel joining of promises.

# The Deferred API

A new instance of deferred is constructed by calling $q.defer().

The purpose of the deferred object is to expose the associated Promise instance as well as APIs that can be used for signaling the successful or unsuccessful completion of the task.

**Methods

  • resolve(value) – resolves the derived promise with the value. If the value is a rejection constructed via $q.reject, the promise will be rejected instead.
  • reject(reason) – rejects the derived promise with the reason. This is equivalent to resolving it with a rejection constructed via $q.reject.

    **Properties

  • promise – {Promise} – promise object associated with this deferred.

    The Promise API

    A new promise instance is created when a deferred instance is created and can be retrieved by calling deferred.promise.

    The purpose of the promise object is to allow for interested parties to get access to the result of the deferred task when it completes.

    **Methods

  • then(successCallback, errorCallback) – regardless of when the promise was or will be resolved or rejected calls one of the success or error callbacks asynchronously as soon as the result is available. The callbacks are called with a single argument the result or rejection reason.

    This method returns a new promise which is resolved or rejected via the return value of the successCallback or errorCallback.

    Chaining promises

    Because calling then api of a promise returns a new derived promise, it is easily possible to create a chain of promises:

    <pre> promiseB = promiseA.then(function(result) { return result + 1; });

    // promiseB will be resolved immediately after promiseA is resolved and its value will be // the result of promiseA incremented by 1 </pre>

    It is possible to create chains of any length and since a promise can be resolved with another promise (which will defer its resolution further), it is possible to pause/defer resolution of the promises at any point in the chain. This makes it possible to implement powerful apis like $http's response interceptors.

    Differences between Kris Kowal's Q and $q

    There are three main differences:

  • $q is integrated with the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope} Scope model observation mechanism in angular, which means faster propagation of resolution or rejection into your models and avoiding unnecessary browser repaints, which would result in flickering UI.

  • $q promises are recognized by the templating engine in angular, which means that in templates you can treat promises attached to a scope as if they were the resulting values.
  • Q has many more features that $q, but that comes at a cost of bytes. $q is tiny, but contains all the important functionality needed for common async tasks.

    Testing

    <pre> it('should simulate promise', inject(function($q, $rootScope) { var deferred = $q.defer(); var promise = deferred.promise; var resolvedValue;

    promise.then(function(value) { resolvedValue = value; }); expect(resolvedValue).toBeUndefined();

    // Simulate resolving of promise deferred.resolve(123); // Note that the 'then' function does not get called synchronously. // This is because we want the promise API to always be async, whether or not // it got called synchronously or asynchronously. expect(resolvedValue).toBeUndefined();

    // Propagate promise resolution to 'then' functions using $apply(). $rootScope.$apply(); expect(resolvedValue).toEqual(123); }); </pre>

function $QProvider() {

  this.$get = ['$rootScope', '$exceptionHandler', function($rootScope, $exceptionHandler) {
    return qFactory(function(callback) {
      $rootScope.$evalAsync(callback);
    }, $exceptionHandler);
  }];
}

Constructs a promise manager.

@param {function(function)} nextTick Function for executing functions in the next turn.

@param {function(...*)} exceptionHandler Function into which unexpected exceptions are passed for debugging purposes.

@returns {object} Promise manager.

function qFactory(nextTick, exceptionHandler) {

@ngdoc

@name ng.$q#defer

@methodOf ng.$q

@description Creates a Deferred object which represents a task which will finish in the future.

@returns {Deferred} Returns a new instance of deferred.

  var defer = function() {
    var pending = [],
        value, deferred;

    deferred = {

      resolve: function(val) {
        if (pending) {
          var callbacks = pending;
          pending = undefined;
          value = ref(val);

          if (callbacks.length) {
            nextTick(function() {
              var callback;
              for (var i = 0, ii = callbacks.length; i < ii; i++) {
                callback = callbacks[i];
                value.then(callback[0], callback[1]);
              }
            });
          }
        }
      },


      reject: function(reason) {
        deferred.resolve(reject(reason));
      },


      promise: {
        then: function(callback, errback) {
          var result = defer();

          var wrappedCallback = function(value) {
            try {
              result.resolve((callback || defaultCallback)(value));
            } catch(e) {
              exceptionHandler(e);
              result.reject(e);
            }
          };

          var wrappedErrback = function(reason) {
            try {
              result.resolve((errback || defaultErrback)(reason));
            } catch(e) {
              exceptionHandler(e);
              result.reject(e);
            }
          };

          if (pending) {
            pending.push([wrappedCallback, wrappedErrback]);
          } else {
            value.then(wrappedCallback, wrappedErrback);
          }

          return result.promise;
        }
      }
    };

    return deferred;
  };


  var ref = function(value) {
    if (value && value.then) return value;
    return {
      then: function(callback) {
        var result = defer();
        nextTick(function() {
          result.resolve(callback(value));
        });
        return result.promise;
      }
    };
  };

@ngdoc

@name ng.$q#reject

@methodOf ng.$q

@description Creates a promise that is resolved as rejected with the specified reason. This api should be used to forward rejection in a chain of promises. If you are dealing with the last promise in a promise chain, you don't need to worry about it.

When comparing deferreds/promises to the familiar behavior of try/catch/throw, think of reject as the throw keyword in JavaScript. This also means that if you "catch" an error via a promise error callback and you want to forward the error to the promise derived from the current promise, you have to "rethrow" the error by returning a rejection constructed via reject.

<pre> promiseB = promiseA.then(function(result) { // success: do something and resolve promiseB // with the old or a new result return result; }, function(reason) { // error: handle the error if possible and // resolve promiseB with newPromiseOrValue, // otherwise forward the rejection to promiseB if (canHandle(reason)) { // handle the error and recover return newPromiseOrValue; } return $q.reject(reason); }); </pre>

@param {*} reason Constant, message, exception or an object representing the rejection reason.

@returns {Promise} Returns a promise that was already resolved as rejected with the reason.

  var reject = function(reason) {
    return {
      then: function(callback, errback) {
        var result = defer();
        nextTick(function() {
          result.resolve((errback || defaultErrback)(reason));
        });
        return result.promise;
      }
    };
  };

@ngdoc

@name ng.$q#when

@methodOf ng.$q

@description Wraps an object that might be a value or a (3rd party) then-able promise into a $q promise. This is useful when you are dealing with an object that might or might not be a promise, or if the promise comes from a source that can't be trusted.

@param {*} value Value or a promise

@returns {Promise} Returns a single promise that will be resolved with an array of values, each value corresponding to the promise at the same index in the promises array. If any of the promises is resolved with a rejection, this resulting promise will be resolved with the same rejection.

  var when = function(value, callback, errback) {
    var result = defer(),
        done;

    var wrappedCallback = function(value) {
      try {
        return (callback || defaultCallback)(value);
      } catch (e) {
        exceptionHandler(e);
        return reject(e);
      }
    };

    var wrappedErrback = function(reason) {
      try {
        return (errback || defaultErrback)(reason);
      } catch (e) {
        exceptionHandler(e);
        return reject(e);
      }
    };

    nextTick(function() {
      ref(value).then(function(value) {
        if (done) return;
        done = true;
        result.resolve(ref(value).then(wrappedCallback, wrappedErrback));
      }, function(reason) {
        if (done) return;
        done = true;
        result.resolve(wrappedErrback(reason));
      });
    });

    return result.promise;
  };


  function defaultCallback(value) {
    return value;
  }


  function defaultErrback(reason) {
    return reject(reason);
  }

@ngdoc

@name ng.$q#all

@methodOf ng.$q

@description Combines multiple promises into a single promise that is resolved when all of the input promises are resolved.

@param {Array.<Promise>} promises An array of promises.

@returns {Promise} Returns a single promise that will be resolved with an array of values, each value corresponding to the promise at the same index in the promises array. If any of the promises is resolved with a rejection, this resulting promise will be resolved with the same rejection.

  function all(promises) {
    var deferred = defer(),
        counter = promises.length,
        results = [];

    if (counter) {
      forEach(promises, function(promise, index) {
        ref(promise).then(function(value) {
          if (index in results) return;
          results[index] = value;
          if (!(--counter)) deferred.resolve(results);
        }, function(reason) {
          if (index in results) return;
          deferred.reject(reason);
        });
      });
    } else {
      deferred.resolve(results);
    }

    return deferred.promise;
  }

  return {
    defer: defer,
    reject: reject,
    when: when,
    all: all
  };
}

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$routeProvider

@function

@description

Used for configuring routes. See {@link ng.$route $route} for an example.

function $RouteProvider(){
  var routes = {};

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$routeProvider#when

@methodOf ng.$routeProvider

@param {string} path Route path (matched against $location.path). If $location.path contains redundant trailing slash or is missing one, the route will still match and the $location.path will be updated to add or drop the trailing slash to exactly match the route definition.

`path` can contain named groups starting with a colon (`:name`). All characters up to the next slash are matched and stored in `$routeParams` under the given `name` when the route matches. 

@param {Object} route Mapping information to be assigned to $route.current on route match.

Object properties: - `controller` – `{(string|function()=}` – Controller fn that should be associated with newly   created scope or the name of a {@link angular.Module#controller registered controller}   if passed as a string. - `template` – `{string=}` –  html template as a string that should be used by   {@link ng.directive:ngView ngView} or   {@link ng.directive:ngInclude ngInclude} directives.   this property takes precedence over `templateUrl`. - `templateUrl` – `{string=}` – path to an html template that should be used by   {@link ng.directive:ngView ngView}. - `resolve` - `{Object.&lt;string, function&gt;=}` - An optional map of dependencies which should   be injected into the controller. If any of these dependencies are promises, they will be   resolved and converted to a value before the controller is instantiated and the   `$routeChangeSuccess` event is fired. The map object is:   - `key` – `{string}`: a name of a dependency to be injected into the controller.   - `factory` - `{string|function}`: If `string` then it is an alias for a service.     Otherwise if function, then it is {@link api/AUTO.$injector#invoke injected}     and the return value is treated as the dependency. If the result is a promise, it is resolved     before its value is injected into the controller. - `redirectTo` – {(string|function())=} – value to update   {@link ng.$location $location} path with and trigger route redirection.   If `redirectTo` is a function, it will be called with the following parameters:   - `{Object.&lt;string&gt;}` - route parameters extracted from the current     `$location.path()` by applying the current route templateUrl.   - `{string}` - current `$location.path()`   - `{Object}` - current `$location.search()`   The custom `redirectTo` function is expected to return a string which will be used   to update `$location.path()` and `$location.search()`. - `[reloadOnSearch=true]` - {boolean=} - reload route when only $location.search() changes.   If the option is set to `false` and url in the browser changes, then   `$routeUpdate` event is broadcasted on the root scope. 

@returns {Object} self

@description Adds a new route definition to the $route service.

  this.when = function(path, route) {
    routes[path] = extend({reloadOnSearch: true}, route);

create redirection for trailing slashes

    if (path) {
      var redirectPath = (path[path.length-1] == '/')
          ? path.substr(0, path.length-1)
          : path +'/';

      routes[redirectPath] = {redirectTo: path};
    }

    return this;
  };

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$routeProvider#otherwise

@methodOf ng.$routeProvider

@description Sets route definition that will be used on route change when no other route definition is matched.

@param {Object} params Mapping information to be assigned to $route.current.

@returns {Object} self

  this.otherwise = function(params) {
    this.when(null, params);
    return this;
  };


  this.$get = ['$rootScope', '$location', '$routeParams', '$q', '$injector', '$http', '$templateCache',
      function( $rootScope,   $location,   $routeParams,   $q,   $injector,   $http,   $templateCache) {

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$route

@requires $location

@requires $routeParams

@property {Object} current Reference to the current route definition. The route definition contains:

  • controller: The controller constructor as define in route definition.
  • locals: A map of locals which is used by {@link ng.$controller $controller} service for controller instantiation. The locals contain the resolved values of the resolve map. Additionally the locals also contain:

    • $scope - The current route scope.
    • $template - The current route template HTML.

    @property {Array.<Object>} routes Array of all configured routes.

    @description Is used for deep-linking URLs to controllers and views (HTML partials). It watches $location.url() and tries to map the path to an existing route definition.

    You can define routes through {@link ng.$routeProvider $routeProvider}'s API.

    The $route service is typically used in conjunction with {@link ng.directive:ngView ngView} directive and the {@link ng.$routeParams $routeParams} service.

    @example This example shows how changing the URL hash causes the $route to match a route against the URL, and the ngView pulls in the partial.

    Note that this example is using {@link ng.directive:script inlined templates} to get it working on jsfiddle as well.

    <example module="ngView"> <file name="index.html"> <div ng-controller="MainCntl"> Choose: <a href="Book/Moby">Moby</a> | <a href="Book/Moby/ch/1">Moby: Ch1</a> | <a href="Book/Gatsby">Gatsby</a> | <a href="Book/Gatsby/ch/4?key=value">Gatsby: Ch4</a> | <a href="Book/Scarlet">Scarlet Letter</a><br/>

       &lt;div ng-view&gt;&lt;/div&gt;    &lt;hr /&gt;    &lt;pre&gt;$location.path() = {{$location.path()}}&lt;/pre&gt;    &lt;pre&gt;$route.current.templateUrl = {{$route.current.templateUrl}}&lt;/pre&gt;    &lt;pre&gt;$route.current.params = {{$route.current.params}}&lt;/pre&gt;    &lt;pre&gt;$route.current.scope.name = {{$route.current.scope.name}}&lt;/pre&gt;    &lt;pre&gt;$routeParams = {{$routeParams}}&lt;/pre&gt;  &lt;/div&gt; 

    </file>

    <file name="book.html"> controller: {{name}}<br /> Book Id: {{params.bookId}}<br /> </file>

    <file name="chapter.html"> controller: {{name}}<br /> Book Id: {{params.bookId}}<br /> Chapter Id: {{params.chapterId}} </file>

    <file name="script.js"> angular.module('ngView', [], function($routeProvider, $locationProvider) { $routeProvider.when('/Book/:bookId', { templateUrl: 'book.html', controller: BookCntl, resolve: { // I will cause a 1 second delay delay: function($q, $timeout) { var delay = $q.defer(); $timeout(delay.resolve, 1000); return delay.promise; } } }); $routeProvider.when('/Book/:bookId/ch/:chapterId', { templateUrl: 'chapter.html', controller: ChapterCntl });

       // configure html5 to get links working on jsfiddle    $locationProvider.html5Mode(true);  });  function MainCntl($scope, $route, $routeParams, $location) {    $scope.$route = $route;    $scope.$location = $location;    $scope.$routeParams = $routeParams;  }  function BookCntl($scope, $routeParams) {    $scope.name = &quot;BookCntl&quot;;    $scope.params = $routeParams;  }  function ChapterCntl($scope, $routeParams) {    $scope.name = &quot;ChapterCntl&quot;;    $scope.params = $routeParams;  } 

    </file>

    <file name="scenario.js"> it('should load and compile correct template', function() { element('a:contains("Moby: Ch1")').click(); var content = element('.doc-example-live [ng-view]').text(); expect(content).toMatch(/controller\: ChapterCntl/); expect(content).toMatch(/Book Id\: Moby/); expect(content).toMatch(/Chapter Id\: 1/);

       element(&#39;a:contains(&quot;Scarlet&quot;)&#39;).click();    sleep(2); // promises are not part of scenario waiting    content = element(&#39;.doc-example-live [ng-view]&#39;).text();    expect(content).toMatch(/controller\: BookCntl/);    expect(content).toMatch(/Book Id\: Scarlet/);  }); 

    </file> </example>

@ngdoc event

@name ng.$route#$routeChangeStart

@eventOf ng.$route

@eventType broadcast on root scope

@description Broadcasted before a route change. At this point the route services starts resolving all of the dependencies needed for the route change to occurs. Typically this involves fetching the view template as well as any dependencies defined in resolve route property. Once all of the dependencies are resolved $routeChangeSuccess is fired.

@param {Route} next Future route information.

@param {Route} current Current route information.

@ngdoc event

@name ng.$route#$routeChangeSuccess

@eventOf ng.$route

@eventType broadcast on root scope

@description Broadcasted after a route dependencies are resolved. {@link ng.directive:ngView ngView} listens for the directive to instantiate the controller and render the view.

@param {Object} angularEvent Synthetic event object.

@param {Route} current Current route information.

@param {Route|Undefined} previous Previous route information, or undefined if current is first route entered.

@ngdoc event

@name ng.$route#$routeChangeError

@eventOf ng.$route

@eventType broadcast on root scope

@description Broadcasted if any of the resolve promises are rejected.

@param {Route} current Current route information.

@param {Route} previous Previous route information.

@param {Route} rejection Rejection of the promise. Usually the error of the failed promise.

@ngdoc event

@name ng.$route#$routeUpdate

@eventOf ng.$route

@eventType broadcast on root scope

@description

The reloadOnSearch property has been set to false, and we are reusing the same instance of the Controller.

    var forceReload = false,
        $route = {
          routes: routes,

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$route#reload

@methodOf ng.$route

@description Causes $route service to reload the current route even if {@link ng.$location $location} hasn't changed.

As a result of that, {@link ng.directive:ngView ngView} creates new scope, reinstantiates the controller.

          reload: function() {
            forceReload = true;
            $rootScope.$evalAsync(updateRoute);
          }
        };

    $rootScope.$on('$locationChangeSuccess', updateRoute);

    return $route;

///////////////////////////////////////////////////

@param on {string} current url

@param when {string} route when template to match the url against

@return {?Object}

    function switchRouteMatcher(on, when) {

TODO(i): this code is convoluted and inefficient, we should construct the route matching regex only once and then reuse it

Escape regexp special characters.

      when = '^' + when.replace(/[-\/\\^$*+?.()|[\]{}]/g, "\\$&") + '$';
      var regex = '',
          params = [],
          dst = {};

      var re = /:(\w+)/g,
          paramMatch,
          lastMatchedIndex = 0;

      while ((paramMatch = re.exec(when)) !== null) {

Find each :param in when and replace it with a capturing group. Append all other sections of when unchanged.

        regex += when.slice(lastMatchedIndex, paramMatch.index);
        regex += '([^\\/]*)';
        params.push(paramMatch[1]);
        lastMatchedIndex = re.lastIndex;
      }

Append trailing path part.

      regex += when.substr(lastMatchedIndex);

      var match = on.match(new RegExp(regex));
      if (match) {
        forEach(params, function(name, index) {
          dst[name] = match[index + 1];
        });
      }
      return match ? dst : null;
    }

    function updateRoute() {
      var next = parseRoute(),
          last = $route.current;

      if (next && last && next.$$route === last.$$route
          && equals(next.pathParams, last.pathParams) && !next.reloadOnSearch && !forceReload) {
        last.params = next.params;
        copy(last.params, $routeParams);
        $rootScope.$broadcast('$routeUpdate', last);
      } else if (next || last) {
        forceReload = false;
        $rootScope.$broadcast('$routeChangeStart', next, last);
        $route.current = next;
        if (next) {
          if (next.redirectTo) {
            if (isString(next.redirectTo)) {
              $location.path(interpolate(next.redirectTo, next.params)).search(next.params)
                       .replace();
            } else {
              $location.url(next.redirectTo(next.pathParams, $location.path(), $location.search()))
                       .replace();
            }
          }
        }

        $q.when(next).
          then(function() {
            if (next) {
              var keys = [],
                  values = [],
                  template;

              forEach(next.resolve || {}, function(value, key) {
                keys.push(key);
                values.push(isString(value) ? $injector.get(value) : $injector.invoke(value));
              });
              if (isDefined(template = next.template)) {
              } else if (isDefined(template = next.templateUrl)) {
                template = $http.get(template, {cache: $templateCache}).
                    then(function(response) { return response.data; });
              }
              if (isDefined(template)) {
                keys.push('$template');
                values.push(template);
              }
              return $q.all(values).then(function(values) {
                var locals = {};
                forEach(values, function(value, index) {
                  locals[keys[index]] = value;
                });
                return locals;
              });
            }
          }).

after route change

          then(function(locals) {
            if (next == $route.current) {
              if (next) {
                next.locals = locals;
                copy(next.params, $routeParams);
              }
              $rootScope.$broadcast('$routeChangeSuccess', next, last);
            }
          }, function(error) {
            if (next == $route.current) {
              $rootScope.$broadcast('$routeChangeError', next, last, error);
            }
          });
      }
    }

@returns the current active route, by matching it against the URL

    function parseRoute() {

Match a route

      var params, match;
      forEach(routes, function(route, path) {
        if (!match && (params = switchRouteMatcher($location.path(), path))) {
          match = inherit(route, {
            params: extend({}, $location.search(), params),
            pathParams: params});
          match.$$route = route;
        }
      });

No route matched; fallback to "otherwise" route

      return match || routes[null] && inherit(routes[null], {params: {}, pathParams:{}});
    }

@returns interpolation of the redirect path with the parametrs

    function interpolate(string, params) {
      var result = [];
      forEach((string||'').split(':'), function(segment, i) {
        if (i == 0) {
          result.push(segment);
        } else {
          var segmentMatch = segment.match(/(\w+)(.*)/);
          var key = segmentMatch[1];
          result.push(params[key]);
          result.push(segmentMatch[2] || '');
          delete params[key];
        }
      });
      return result.join('');
    }
  }];
}

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$routeParams

@requires $route

@description Current set of route parameters. The route parameters are a combination of the {@link ng.$location $location} search(), and path(). The path parameters are extracted when the {@link ng.$route $route} path is matched.

In case of parameter name collision, path params take precedence over search params.

The service guarantees that the identity of the $routeParams object will remain unchanged (but its properties will likely change) even when a route change occurs.

@example <pre> // Given: // URL: http://server.com/index.html#/Chapter/1/Section/2?search=moby // Route: /Chapter/:chapterId/Section/:sectionId // // Then $routeParams ==> {chapterId:1, sectionId:2, search:'moby'} </pre>

function $RouteParamsProvider() {
  this.$get = valueFn({});
}

DESIGN NOTES

The design decisions behind the scope ware heavily favored for speed and memory consumption.

The typical use of scope is to watch the expressions, which most of the time return the same value as last time so we optimize the operation.

Closures construction is expensive from speed as well as memory: - no closures, instead ups prototypical inheritance for API - Internal state needs to be stored on scope directly, which means that private state is exposed as $$__ properties

Loop operations are optimized by using while(count--) { ... } - this means that in order to keep the same order of execution as addition we have to add items to the array at the begging (shift) instead of at the end (push)

Child scopes are created and removed often - Using array would be slow since inserts in meddle are expensive so we use linked list

There are few watches then a lot of observers. This is why you don't want the observer to be implemented in the same way as watch. Watch requires return of initialization function which are expensive to construct.

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$rootScopeProvider

@description

Provider for the $rootScope service.

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$rootScopeProvider#digestTtl

@methodOf ng.$rootScopeProvider

@description

Sets the number of digest iteration the scope should attempt to execute before giving up and assuming that the model is unstable.

The current default is 10 iterations.

@param {number} limit The number of digest iterations.

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$rootScope

@description

Every application has a single root {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope scope}. All other scopes are child scopes of the root scope. Scopes provide mechanism for watching the model and provide event processing life-cycle. See {@link guide/scope developer guide on scopes}.

function $RootScopeProvider(){
  var TTL = 10;

  this.digestTtl = function(value) {
    if (arguments.length) {
      TTL = value;
    }
    return TTL;
  };

  this.$get = ['$injector', '$exceptionHandler', '$parse',
      function( $injector,   $exceptionHandler,   $parse) {

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$rootScope.Scope

@description A root scope can be retrieved using the {@link ng.$rootScope $rootScope} key from the {@link AUTO.$injector $injector}. Child scopes are created using the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$new $new()} method. (Most scopes are created automatically when compiled HTML template is executed.)

Here is a simple scope snippet to show how you can interact with the scope. <pre> angular.injector(['ng']).invoke(function($rootScope) { var scope = $rootScope.$new(); scope.salutation = 'Hello'; scope.name = 'World';

       expect(scope.greeting).toEqual(undefined);        scope.$watch(&#39;name&#39;, function() {          scope.greeting = scope.salutation + &#39; &#39; + scope.name + &#39;!&#39;;        }); // initialize the watch        expect(scope.greeting).toEqual(undefined);        scope.name = &#39;Misko&#39;;        // still old value, since watches have not been called yet        expect(scope.greeting).toEqual(undefined);        scope.$digest(); // fire all  the watches        expect(scope.greeting).toEqual(&#39;Hello Misko!&#39;);     }); 

</pre>

# Inheritance A scope can inherit from a parent scope, as in this example: <pre> var parent = $rootScope; var child = parent.$new();

     parent.salutation = &quot;Hello&quot;;      child.name = &quot;World&quot;;      expect(child.salutation).toEqual(&#39;Hello&#39;);      child.salutation = &quot;Welcome&quot;;      expect(child.salutation).toEqual(&#39;Welcome&#39;);      expect(parent.salutation).toEqual(&#39;Hello&#39;); 

</pre>

@param {Object.<string, function()>=} providers Map of service factory which need to be provided for the current scope. Defaults to {@link ng}.

@param {Object.<string, *>=} instanceCache Provides pre-instantiated services which should append/override services provided by providers. This is handy when unit-testing and having the need to override a default service.

@returns {Object} Newly created scope.

    function Scope() {
      this.$id = nextUid();
      this.$$phase = this.$parent = this.$$watchers =
                     this.$$nextSibling = this.$$prevSibling =
                     this.$$childHead = this.$$childTail = null;
      this['this'] = this.$root =  this;
      this.$$destroyed = false;
      this.$$asyncQueue = [];
      this.$$listeners = {};
      this.$$isolateBindings = {};
    }

@ngdoc property

@name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$id

@propertyOf ng.$rootScope.Scope

@returns {number} Unique scope ID (monotonically increasing alphanumeric sequence) useful for debugging.

    Scope.prototype = {

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$new

@methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope

@function

@description Creates a new child {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope scope}.

The parent scope will propagate the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest()} and {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest()} events. The scope can be removed from the scope hierarchy using {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$destroy $destroy()}.

{@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$destroy $destroy()} must be called on a scope when it is desired for the scope and its child scopes to be permanently detached from the parent and thus stop participating in model change detection and listener notification by invoking.

@param {boolean} isolate if true then the scope does not prototypically inherit from the parent scope. The scope is isolated, as it can not see parent scope properties. When creating widgets it is useful for the widget to not accidentally read parent state.

@returns {Object} The newly created child scope.

      $new: function(isolate) {
        var Child,
            child;

        if (isFunction(isolate)) {

TODO: remove at some point

          throw Error('API-CHANGE: Use $controller to instantiate controllers.');
        }
        if (isolate) {
          child = new Scope();
          child.$root = this.$root;
        } else {
          Child = function() {}; // should be anonymous; This is so that when the minifier munges

the name it does not become random set of chars. These will then show up as class name in the debugger.

          Child.prototype = this;
          child = new Child();
          child.$id = nextUid();
        }
        child['this'] = child;
        child.$$listeners = {};
        child.$parent = this;
        child.$$asyncQueue = [];
        child.$$watchers = child.$$nextSibling = child.$$childHead = child.$$childTail = null;
        child.$$prevSibling = this.$$childTail;
        if (this.$$childHead) {
          this.$$childTail.$$nextSibling = child;
          this.$$childTail = child;
        } else {
          this.$$childHead = this.$$childTail = child;
        }
        return child;
      },

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$watch

@methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope

@function

@description Registers a listener callback to be executed whenever the watchExpression changes.

  • The watchExpression is called on every call to {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest()} and should return the value which will be watched. (Since {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest()} reruns when it detects changes the watchExpression can execute multiple times per {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest()} and should be idempotent.)
  • The listener is called only when the value from the current watchExpression and the previous call to watchExpression are not equal (with the exception of the initial run, see below). The inequality is determined according to {@link angular.equals} function. To save the value of the object for later comparison, the {@link angular.copy} function is used. It also means that watching complex options will have adverse memory and performance implications.
  • The watch listener may change the model, which may trigger other listeners to fire. This is achieved by rerunning the watchers until no changes are detected. The rerun iteration limit is 10 to prevent an infinite loop deadlock.

    If you want to be notified whenever {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest} is called, you can register a watchExpression function with no listener. (Since watchExpression can execute multiple times per {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest} cycle when a change is detected, be prepared for multiple calls to your listener.)

    After a watcher is registered with the scope, the listener fn is called asynchronously (via {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$evalAsync $evalAsync}) to initialize the watcher. In rare cases, this is undesirable because the listener is called when the result of watchExpression didn't change. To detect this scenario within the listener fn, you can compare the newVal and oldVal. If these two values are identical (===) then the listener was called due to initialization.

    Example

    <pre> // let's assume that scope was dependency injected as the $rootScope var scope = $rootScope; scope.name = 'misko'; scope.counter = 0;

       expect(scope.counter).toEqual(0);    scope.$watch(&#39;name&#39;, function(newValue, oldValue) { scope.counter = scope.counter + 1; });    expect(scope.counter).toEqual(0);    scope.$digest();    // no variable change    expect(scope.counter).toEqual(0);    scope.name = &#39;adam&#39;;    scope.$digest();    expect(scope.counter).toEqual(1); 

    </pre>

    @param {(function()|string)} watchExpression Expression that is evaluated on each {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest} cycle. A change in the return value triggers a call to the listener.

    • string: Evaluated as {@link guide/expression expression}
    • function(scope): called with current scope as a parameter.

    @param {(function()|string)=} listener Callback called whenever the return value of the watchExpression changes.

    • string: Evaluated as {@link guide/expression expression}
    • function(newValue, oldValue, scope): called with current and previous values as parameters.

    @param {boolean=} objectEquality Compare object for equality rather than for reference.

    @returns {function()} Returns a deregistration function for this listener.

      $watch: function(watchExp, listener, objectEquality) {
        var scope = this,
            get = compileToFn(watchExp, 'watch'),
            array = scope.$$watchers,
            watcher = {
              fn: listener,
              last: initWatchVal,
              get: get,
              exp: watchExp,
              eq: !!objectEquality
            };

in the case user pass string, we need to compile it, do we really need this ?

        if (!isFunction(listener)) {
          var listenFn = compileToFn(listener || noop, 'listener');
          watcher.fn = function(newVal, oldVal, scope) {listenFn(scope);};
        }

        if (!array) {
          array = scope.$$watchers = [];
        }

we use unshift since we use a while loop in $digest for speed. the while loop reads in reverse order.

        array.unshift(watcher);

        return function() {
          arrayRemove(array, watcher);
        };
      },

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest

@methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope

@function

@description Process all of the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$watch watchers} of the current scope and its children. Because a {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$watch watcher}'s listener can change the model, the $digest() keeps calling the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$watch watchers} until no more listeners are firing. This means that it is possible to get into an infinite loop. This function will throw &#39;Maximum iteration limit exceeded.&#39; if the number of iterations exceeds 10.

Usually you don't call $digest() directly in {@link ng.directive:ngController controllers} or in {@link ng.$compileProvider#directive directives}. Instead a call to {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$apply $apply()} (typically from within a {@link ng.$compileProvider#directive directives}) will force a $digest().

If you want to be notified whenever $digest() is called, you can register a watchExpression function with {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$watch $watch()} with no listener.

You may have a need to call $digest() from within unit-tests, to simulate the scope life-cycle.

# Example <pre> var scope = ...; scope.name = 'misko'; scope.counter = 0;

       expect(scope.counter).toEqual(0);        scope.$watch(&#39;name&#39;, function(newValue, oldValue) {          scope.counter = scope.counter + 1;        });        expect(scope.counter).toEqual(0);        scope.$digest();        // no variable change        expect(scope.counter).toEqual(0);        scope.name = &#39;adam&#39;;        scope.$digest();        expect(scope.counter).toEqual(1); 

</pre>

      $digest: function() {
        var watch, value, last,
            watchers,
            asyncQueue,
            length,
            dirty, ttl = TTL,
            next, current, target = this,
            watchLog = [],
            logIdx, logMsg;

        beginPhase('$digest');

        do {
          dirty = false;
          current = target;
          do {
            asyncQueue = current.$$asyncQueue;
            while(asyncQueue.length) {
              try {
                current.$eval(asyncQueue.shift());
              } catch (e) {
                $exceptionHandler(e);
              }
            }
            if ((watchers = current.$$watchers)) {

process our watches

              length = watchers.length;
              while (length--) {
                try {
                  watch = watchers[length];

Most common watches are on primitives, in which case we can short circuit it with === operator, only when === fails do we use .equals

                  if ((value = watch.get(current)) !== (last = watch.last) &&
                      !(watch.eq
                          ? equals(value, last)
                          : (typeof value == 'number' && typeof last == 'number'
                             && isNaN(value) && isNaN(last)))) {
                    dirty = true;
                    watch.last = watch.eq ? copy(value) : value;
                    watch.fn(value, ((last === initWatchVal) ? value : last), current);
                    if (ttl < 5) {
                      logIdx = 4 - ttl;
                      if (!watchLog[logIdx]) watchLog[logIdx] = [];
                      logMsg = (isFunction(watch.exp))
                          ? 'fn: ' + (watch.exp.name || watch.exp.toString())
                          : watch.exp;
                      logMsg += '; newVal: ' + toJson(value) + '; oldVal: ' + toJson(last);
                      watchLog[logIdx].push(logMsg);
                    }
                  }
                } catch (e) {
                  $exceptionHandler(e);
                }
              }
            }

Insanity Warning: scope depth-first traversal yes, this code is a bit crazy, but it works and we have tests to prove it! this piece should be kept in sync with the traversal in $broadcast

            if (!(next = (current.$$childHead || (current !== target && current.$$nextSibling)))) {
              while(current !== target && !(next = current.$$nextSibling)) {
                current = current.$parent;
              }
            }
          } while ((current = next));

          if(dirty && !(ttl--)) {
            clearPhase();
            throw Error(TTL + ' $digest() iterations reached. Aborting!\n' +
                'Watchers fired in the last 5 iterations: ' + toJson(watchLog));
          }
        } while (dirty || asyncQueue.length);

        clearPhase();
      },

@ngdoc event

@name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$destroy

@eventOf ng.$rootScope.Scope

@eventType broadcast on scope being destroyed

@description Broadcasted when a scope and its children are being destroyed.

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$destroy

@methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope

@function

@description Removes the current scope (and all of its children) from the parent scope. Removal implies that calls to {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest()} will no longer propagate to the current scope and its children. Removal also implies that the current scope is eligible for garbage collection.

The $destroy() is usually used by directives such as {@link ng.directive:ngRepeat ngRepeat} for managing the unrolling of the loop.

Just before a scope is destroyed a $destroy event is broadcasted on this scope. Application code can register a $destroy event handler that will give it chance to perform any necessary cleanup.

      $destroy: function() {

we can't destroy the root scope or a scope that has been already destroyed

        if ($rootScope == this || this.$$destroyed) return;
        var parent = this.$parent;

        this.$broadcast('$destroy');
        this.$$destroyed = true;

        if (parent.$$childHead == this) parent.$$childHead = this.$$nextSibling;
        if (parent.$$childTail == this) parent.$$childTail = this.$$prevSibling;
        if (this.$$prevSibling) this.$$prevSibling.$$nextSibling = this.$$nextSibling;
        if (this.$$nextSibling) this.$$nextSibling.$$prevSibling = this.$$prevSibling;

This is bogus code that works around Chrome's GC leak see: https://github.com/angular/angular.js/issues/1313#issuecomment-10378451

        this.$parent = this.$$nextSibling = this.$$prevSibling = this.$$childHead =
            this.$$childTail = null;
      },

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$eval

@methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope

@function

@description Executes the expression on the current scope returning the result. Any exceptions in the expression are propagated (uncaught). This is useful when evaluating Angular expressions.

# Example <pre> var scope = ng.$rootScope.Scope(); scope.a = 1; scope.b = 2;

       expect(scope.$eval(&#39;a+b&#39;)).toEqual(3);        expect(scope.$eval(function(scope){ return scope.a + scope.b; })).toEqual(3); 

</pre>

@param {(string|function())=} expression An angular expression to be executed.

- `string`: execute using the rules as defined in  {@link guide/expression expression}. - `function(scope)`: execute the function with the current `scope` parameter. 

@returns {*} The result of evaluating the expression.

      $eval: function(expr, locals) {
        return $parse(expr)(this, locals);
      },

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$evalAsync

@methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope

@function

@description Executes the expression on the current scope at a later point in time.

The $evalAsync makes no guarantees as to when the expression will be executed, only that:

  • it will execute in the current script execution context (before any DOM rendering).
  • at least one {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest cycle} will be performed after expression execution.

    Any exceptions from the execution of the expression are forwarded to the {@link ng.$exceptionHandler $exceptionHandler} service.

    @param {(string|function())=} expression An angular expression to be executed.

    • string: execute using the rules as defined in {@link guide/expression expression}.
    • function(scope): execute the function with the current scope parameter.
      $evalAsync: function(expr) {
        this.$$asyncQueue.push(expr);
      },

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$apply

@methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope

@function

@description $apply() is used to execute an expression in angular from outside of the angular framework. (For example from browser DOM events, setTimeout, XHR or third party libraries). Because we are calling into the angular framework we need to perform proper scope life-cycle of {@link ng.$exceptionHandler exception handling}, {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest executing watches}.

## Life cycle

# Pseudo-Code of $apply() <pre> function $apply(expr) { try { return $eval(expr); } catch (e) { $exceptionHandler(e); } finally { $root.$digest(); } } </pre>

Scope's $apply() method transitions through the following stages:

  1. The {@link guide/expression expression} is executed using the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$eval $eval()} method.
  2. Any exceptions from the execution of the expression are forwarded to the {@link ng.$exceptionHandler $exceptionHandler} service.
  3. The {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$watch watch} listeners are fired immediately after the expression was executed using the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest()} method.

    @param {(string|function())=} exp An angular expression to be executed.

    • string: execute using the rules as defined in {@link guide/expression expression}.
    • function(scope): execute the function with current scope parameter.

    @returns {*} The result of evaluating the expression.

      $apply: function(expr) {
        try {
          beginPhase('$apply');
          return this.$eval(expr);
        } catch (e) {
          $exceptionHandler(e);
        } finally {
          clearPhase();
          try {
            $rootScope.$digest();
          } catch (e) {
            $exceptionHandler(e);
            throw e;
          }
        }
      },

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on

@methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope

@function

@description Listens on events of a given type. See {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$emit $emit} for discussion of event life cycle.

The event listener function format is: function(event, args...). The event object passed into the listener has the following attributes:

  • targetScope - {Scope}: the scope on which the event was $emit-ed or $broadcast-ed.
  • currentScope - {Scope}: the current scope which is handling the event.
  • name - {string}: Name of the event.
  • stopPropagation - {function=}: calling stopPropagation function will cancel further event propagation (available only for events that were $emit-ed).
  • preventDefault - {function}: calling preventDefault sets defaultPrevented flag to true.
  • defaultPrevented - {boolean}: true if preventDefault was called.

    @param {string} name Event name to listen on.

    @param {function(event, args...)} listener Function to call when the event is emitted.

    @returns {function()} Returns a deregistration function for this listener.

      $on: function(name, listener) {
        var namedListeners = this.$$listeners[name];
        if (!namedListeners) {
          this.$$listeners[name] = namedListeners = [];
        }
        namedListeners.push(listener);

        return function() {
          namedListeners[indexOf(namedListeners, listener)] = null;
        };
      },

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$emit

@methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope

@function

@description Dispatches an event name upwards through the scope hierarchy notifying the registered {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on} listeners.

The event life cycle starts at the scope on which $emit was called. All {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on listeners} listening for name event on this scope get notified. Afterwards, the event traverses upwards toward the root scope and calls all registered listeners along the way. The event will stop propagating if one of the listeners cancels it.

Any exception emmited from the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on listeners} will be passed onto the {@link ng.$exceptionHandler $exceptionHandler} service.

@param {string} name Event name to emit.

@param {...*} args Optional set of arguments which will be passed onto the event listeners.

@return {Object} Event object, see {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on}

      $emit: function(name, args) {
        var empty = [],
            namedListeners,
            scope = this,
            stopPropagation = false,
            event = {
              name: name,
              targetScope: scope,
              stopPropagation: function() {stopPropagation = true;},
              preventDefault: function() {
                event.defaultPrevented = true;
              },
              defaultPrevented: false
            },
            listenerArgs = concat([event], arguments, 1),
            i, length;

        do {
          namedListeners = scope.$$listeners[name] || empty;
          event.currentScope = scope;
          for (i=0, length=namedListeners.length; i<length; i++) {

if listeners were deregistered, defragment the array

            if (!namedListeners[i]) {
              namedListeners.splice(i, 1);
              i--;
              length--;
              continue;
            }
            try {
              namedListeners[i].apply(null, listenerArgs);
              if (stopPropagation) return event;
            } catch (e) {
              $exceptionHandler(e);
            }
          }

traverse upwards

          scope = scope.$parent;
        } while (scope);

        return event;
      },

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$broadcast

@methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope

@function

@description Dispatches an event name downwards to all child scopes (and their children) notifying the registered {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on} listeners.

The event life cycle starts at the scope on which $broadcast was called. All {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on listeners} listening for name event on this scope get notified. Afterwards, the event propagates to all direct and indirect scopes of the current scope and calls all registered listeners along the way. The event cannot be canceled.

Any exception emmited from the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on listeners} will be passed onto the {@link ng.$exceptionHandler $exceptionHandler} service.

@param {string} name Event name to emit.

@param {...*} args Optional set of arguments which will be passed onto the event listeners.

@return {Object} Event object, see {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on}

      $broadcast: function(name, args) {
        var target = this,
            current = target,
            next = target,
            event = {
              name: name,
              targetScope: target,
              preventDefault: function() {
                event.defaultPrevented = true;
              },
              defaultPrevented: false
            },
            listenerArgs = concat([event], arguments, 1),
            listeners, i, length;

down while you can, then up and next sibling or up and next sibling until back at root

        do {
          current = next;
          event.currentScope = current;
          listeners = current.$$listeners[name] || [];
          for (i=0, length = listeners.length; i<length; i++) {

if listeners were deregistered, defragment the array

            if (!listeners[i]) {
              listeners.splice(i, 1);
              i--;
              length--;
              continue;
            }

            try {
              listeners[i].apply(null, listenerArgs);
            } catch(e) {
              $exceptionHandler(e);
            }
          }

Insanity Warning: scope depth-first traversal yes, this code is a bit crazy, but it works and we have tests to prove it! this piece should be kept in sync with the traversal in $digest

          if (!(next = (current.$$childHead || (current !== target && current.$$nextSibling)))) {
            while(current !== target && !(next = current.$$nextSibling)) {
              current = current.$parent;
            }
          }
        } while ((current = next));

        return event;
      }
    };

    var $rootScope = new Scope();

    return $rootScope;


    function beginPhase(phase) {
      if ($rootScope.$$phase) {
        throw Error($rootScope.$$phase + ' already in progress');
      }

      $rootScope.$$phase = phase;
    }

    function clearPhase() {
      $rootScope.$$phase = null;
    }

    function compileToFn(exp, name) {
      var fn = $parse(exp);
      assertArgFn(fn, name);
      return fn;
    }

function used as an initial value for watchers. because it's unique we can easily tell it apart from other values

    function initWatchVal() {}
  }];
}

!!! This is an undocumented "private" service !!!

@name ng.$sniffer

@requires $window

@property {boolean} history Does the browser support html5 history api ?

@property {boolean} hashchange Does the browser support hashchange event ?

@description This is very simple implementation of testing browser's features.

function $SnifferProvider() {
  this.$get = ['$window', function($window) {
    var eventSupport = {},
        android = int((/android (\d+)/.exec(lowercase($window.navigator.userAgent)) || [])[1]);

    return {

Android has history.pushState, but it does not update location correctly so let's not use the history API at all. http://code.google.com/p/android/issues/detail?id=17471 https://github.com/angular/angular.js/issues/904

      history: !!($window.history && $window.history.pushState && !(android < 4)),
      hashchange: 'onhashchange' in $window &&

IE8 compatible mode lies

                  (!$window.document.documentMode || $window.document.documentMode > 7),
      hasEvent: function(event) {

IE9 implements 'input' event it's so fubared that we rather pretend that it doesn't have it. In particular the event is not fired when backspace or delete key are pressed or when cut operation is performed.

        if (event == 'input' && msie == 9) return false;

        if (isUndefined(eventSupport[event])) {
          var divElm = $window.document.createElement('div');
          eventSupport[event] = 'on' + event in divElm;
        }

        return eventSupport[event];
      },

TODO(i): currently there is no way to feature detect CSP without triggering alerts

      csp: false
    };
  }];
}

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$window

@description A reference to the browser's window object. While window is globally available in JavaScript, it causes testability problems, because it is a global variable. In angular we always refer to it through the $window service, so it may be overriden, removed or mocked for testing.

All expressions are evaluated with respect to current scope so they don't suffer from window globality.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <input ng-init="$window = $service('$window'); greeting='Hello World!'" type="text" ng-model="greeting" /> <button ng-click="$window.alert(greeting)">ALERT</button> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

function $WindowProvider(){
  this.$get = valueFn(window);
}

Parse headers into key value object

@param {string} headers Raw headers as a string

@returns {Object} Parsed headers as key value object

function parseHeaders(headers) {
  var parsed = {}, key, val, i;

  if (!headers) return parsed;

  forEach(headers.split('\n'), function(line) {
    i = line.indexOf(':');
    key = lowercase(trim(line.substr(0, i)));
    val = trim(line.substr(i + 1));

    if (key) {
      if (parsed[key]) {
        parsed[key] += ', ' + val;
      } else {
        parsed[key] = val;
      }
    }
  });

  return parsed;
}

Returns a function that provides access to parsed headers.

Headers are lazy parsed when first requested.

@see parseHeaders

@param {(string|Object)} headers Headers to provide access to.

@returns {function(string=)} Returns a getter function which if called with:

  • if called with single an argument returns a single header value or null
  • if called with no arguments returns an object containing all headers.
function headersGetter(headers) {
  var headersObj = isObject(headers) ? headers : undefined;

  return function(name) {
    if (!headersObj) headersObj =  parseHeaders(headers);

    if (name) {
      return headersObj[lowercase(name)] || null;
    }

    return headersObj;
  };
}

Chain all given functions

This function is used for both request and response transforming

@param {*} data Data to transform.

@param {function(string=)} headers Http headers getter fn.

@param {(function|Array.<function>)} fns Function or an array of functions.

@returns {*} Transformed data.

function transformData(data, headers, fns) {
  if (isFunction(fns))
    return fns(data, headers);

  forEach(fns, function(fn) {
    data = fn(data, headers);
  });

  return data;
}


function isSuccess(status) {
  return 200 <= status && status < 300;
}


function $HttpProvider() {
  var JSON_START = /^\s*(\[|\{[^\{])/,
      JSON_END = /[\}\]]\s*$/,
      PROTECTION_PREFIX = /^\)\]\}',?\n/;

  var $config = this.defaults = {

transform incoming response data

    transformResponse: [function(data) {
      if (isString(data)) {

strip json vulnerability protection prefix

        data = data.replace(PROTECTION_PREFIX, '');
        if (JSON_START.test(data) && JSON_END.test(data))
          data = fromJson(data, true);
      }
      return data;
    }],

transform outgoing request data

    transformRequest: [function(d) {
      return isObject(d) && !isFile(d) ? toJson(d) : d;
    }],

default headers

    headers: {
      common: {
        'Accept': 'application/json, text/plain, *//',
    &#39;X-Requested-With&#39;: &#39;XMLHttpRequest&#39;   },   post: {&#39;Content-Type&#39;: &#39;application/json;charset=utf-8&#39;},   put:  {&#39;Content-Type&#39;: &#39;application/json;charset=utf-8&#39;} } 

};

var providerResponseInterceptors = this.responseInterceptors = [];

this.$get = ['$httpBackend', '$browser', '$cacheFactory', '$rootScope', '$q', '$injector', function($httpBackend, $browser, $cacheFactory, $rootScope, $q, $injector) {

var defaultCache = $cacheFactory(&#39;$http&#39;),     responseInterceptors = []; forEach(providerResponseInterceptors, function(interceptor) {   responseInterceptors.push(       isString(interceptor)           ? $injector.get(interceptor)           : $injector.invoke(interceptor)   ); }); / 

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$http

@requires $httpBackend

@requires $browser

@requires $cacheFactory

@requires $rootScope

@requires $q

@requires $injector

@description The $http service is a core Angular service that facilitates communication with the remote HTTP servers via browser's {@link https://developer.mozilla.org/en/xmlhttprequest XMLHttpRequest} object or via {@link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSONP JSONP}.

For unit testing applications that use $http service, see {@link ngMock.$httpBackend $httpBackend mock}.

For a higher level of abstraction, please check out the {@link ngResource.$resource $resource} service.

The $http API is based on the {@link ng.$q deferred/promise APIs} exposed by the $q service. While for simple usage patters this doesn't matter much, for advanced usage, it is important to familiarize yourself with these apis and guarantees they provide.

# General usage The $http service is a function which takes a single argument — a configuration object — that is used to generate an http request and returns a {@link ng.$q promise} with two $http specific methods: success and error.

<pre> $http({method: 'GET', url: '/someUrl'}). success(function(data, status, headers, config) { // this callback will be called asynchronously // when the response is available }). error(function(data, status, headers, config) { // called asynchronously if an error occurs // or server returns response with an error status. }); </pre>

Since the returned value of calling the $http function is a Promise object, you can also use the then method to register callbacks, and these callbacks will receive a single argument – an object representing the response. See the api signature and type info below for more details.

A response status code that falls in the [200, 300) range is considered a success status and will result in the success callback being called. Note that if the response is a redirect, XMLHttpRequest will transparently follow it, meaning that the error callback will not be called for such responses.

# Shortcut methods

Since all invocation of the $http service require definition of the http method and url and POST and PUT requests require response body/data to be provided as well, shortcut methods were created to simplify using the api:

<pre> $http.get('/someUrl').success(successCallback); $http.post('/someUrl', data).success(successCallback); </pre>

Complete list of shortcut methods:

  • {@link ng.$http#get $http.get}
  • {@link ng.$http#head $http.head}
  • {@link ng.$http#post $http.post}
  • {@link ng.$http#put $http.put}
  • {@link ng.$http#delete $http.delete}
  • {@link ng.$http#jsonp $http.jsonp}

    Setting HTTP Headers

    The $http service will automatically add certain http headers to all requests. These defaults can be fully configured by accessing the $httpProvider.defaults.headers configuration object, which currently contains this default configuration:

  • $httpProvider.defaults.headers.common (headers that are common for all requests):

    • Accept: application/json, text/plain, * / *
    • X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest
  • $httpProvider.defaults.headers.post: (header defaults for HTTP POST requests)
    • Content-Type: application/json
  • $httpProvider.defaults.headers.put (header defaults for HTTP PUT requests)

    • Content-Type: application/json

    To add or overwrite these defaults, simply add or remove a property from this configuration objects. To add headers for an HTTP method other than POST or PUT, simply add a new object with name equal to the lower-cased http method name, e.g. $httpProvider.defaults.headers.get[&#39;My-Header&#39;]=&#39;value&#39;.

    Additionally, the defaults can be set at runtime via the $http.defaults object in a similar fassion as described above.

    Transforming Requests and Responses

    Both requests and responses can be transformed using transform functions. By default, Angular applies these transformations:

    Request transformations:

  • if the data property of the request config object contains an object, serialize it into JSON format.

    Response transformations:

    • if XSRF prefix is detected, strip it (see Security Considerations section below)
    • if json response is detected, deserialize it using a JSON parser

    To globally augment or override the default transforms, modify the $httpProvider.defaults.transformRequest and $httpProvider.defaults.transformResponse properties of the $httpProvider. These properties are by default an array of transform functions, which allows you to push or unshift a new transformation function into the transformation chain. You can also decide to completely override any default transformations by assigning your transformation functions to these properties directly without the array wrapper.

    Similarly, to locally override the request/response transforms, augment the transformRequest and/or transformResponse properties of the config object passed into $http.

    Caching

    To enable caching set the configuration property cache to true. When the cache is enabled, $http stores the response from the server in local cache. Next time the response is served from the cache without sending a request to the server.

    Note that even if the response is served from cache, delivery of the data is asynchronous in the same way that real requests are.

    If there are multiple GET requests for the same url that should be cached using the same cache, but the cache is not populated yet, only one request to the server will be made and the remaining requests will be fulfilled using the response for the first request.

    Response interceptors

    Before you start creating interceptors, be sure to understand the {@link ng.$q $q and deferred/promise APIs}.

    For purposes of global error handling, authentication or any kind of synchronous or asynchronous preprocessing of received responses, it is desirable to be able to intercept responses for http requests before they are handed over to the application code that initiated these requests. The response interceptors leverage the {@link ng.$q promise apis} to fulfil this need for both synchronous and asynchronous preprocessing.

    The interceptors are service factories that are registered with the $httpProvider by adding them to the $httpProvider.responseInterceptors array. The factory is called and injected with dependencies (if specified) and returns the interceptor — a function that takes a {@link ng.$q promise} and returns the original or a new promise.

    <pre> // register the interceptor as a service $provide.factory('myHttpInterceptor', function($q, dependency1, dependency2) { return function(promise) { return promise.then(function(response) { // do something on success }, function(response) { // do something on error if (canRecover(response)) { return responseOrNewPromise } return $q.reject(response); }); } });

    $httpProvider.responseInterceptors.push('myHttpInterceptor');

    // register the interceptor via an anonymous factory $httpProvider.responseInterceptors.push(function($q, dependency1, dependency2) { return function(promise) { // same as above } }); </pre>

    Security Considerations

    When designing web applications, consider security threats from:

  • {@link http://haacked.com/archive/2008/11/20/anatomy-of-a-subtle-json-vulnerability.aspx JSON Vulnerability}

  • {@link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-siterequestforgery XSRF}

    Both server and the client must cooperate in order to eliminate these threats. Angular comes pre-configured with strategies that address these issues, but for this to work backend server cooperation is required.

    JSON Vulnerability Protection

    A {@link http://haacked.com/archive/2008/11/20/anatomy-of-a-subtle-json-vulnerability.aspx JSON Vulnerability} allows third party web-site to turn your JSON resource URL into {@link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSON#JSONP JSONP} request under some conditions. To counter this your server can prefix all JSON requests with following string &quot;)]}&#39;,\n&quot;. Angular will automatically strip the prefix before processing it as JSON.

    For example if your server needs to return: <pre> ['one','two'] </pre>

    which is vulnerable to attack, your server can return: <pre> )]}', ['one','two'] </pre>

    Angular will strip the prefix, before processing the JSON.

    Cross Site Request Forgery (XSRF) Protection

    {@link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-siterequestforgery XSRF} is a technique by which an unauthorized site can gain your user's private data. Angular provides following mechanism to counter XSRF. When performing XHR requests, the $http service reads a token from a cookie called XSRF-TOKEN and sets it as the HTTP header X-XSRF-TOKEN. Since only JavaScript that runs on your domain could read the cookie, your server can be assured that the XHR came from JavaScript running on your domain.

    To take advantage of this, your server needs to set a token in a JavaScript readable session cookie called XSRF-TOKEN on first HTTP GET request. On subsequent non-GET requests the server can verify that the cookie matches X-XSRF-TOKEN HTTP header, and therefore be sure that only JavaScript running on your domain could have read the token. The token must be unique for each user and must be verifiable by the server (to prevent the JavaScript making up its own tokens). We recommend that the token is a digest of your site's authentication cookie with {@link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainbow_table salt for added security}.

    @param {object} config Object describing the request to be made and how it should be processed. The object has following properties:

    • method{string} – HTTP method (e.g. 'GET', 'POST', etc)
    • url{string} – Absolute or relative URL of the resource that is being requested.
    • params{Object.&lt;string|Object&gt;} – Map of strings or objects which will be turned to ?key1=value1&amp;key2=value2 after the url. If the value is not a string, it will be JSONified.
    • data{string|Object} – Data to be sent as the request message data.
    • headers{Object} – Map of strings representing HTTP headers to send to the server.
    • transformRequest{function(data, headersGetter)|Array.&lt;function(data, headersGetter)&gt;} – transform function or an array of such functions. The transform function takes the http request body and headers and returns its transformed (typically serialized) version.
    • transformResponse{function(data, headersGetter)|Array.&lt;function(data, headersGetter)&gt;} – transform function or an array of such functions. The transform function takes the http response body and headers and returns its transformed (typically deserialized) version.
    • cache{boolean|Cache} – If true, a default $http cache will be used to cache the GET request, otherwise if a cache instance built with {@link ng.$cacheFactory $cacheFactory}, this cache will be used for caching.
    • timeout{number} – timeout in milliseconds.
    • withCredentials - {boolean} - whether to to set the withCredentials flag on the XHR object. See {@link https://developer.mozilla.org/en/httpaccesscontrol#section_5 requests with credentials} for more information.

    @returns {HttpPromise} Returns a {@link ng.$q promise} object with the standard then method and two http specific methods: success and error. The then method takes two arguments a success and an error callback which will be called with a response object. The success and error methods take a single argument - a function that will be called when the request succeeds or fails respectively. The arguments passed into these functions are destructured representation of the response object passed into the then method. The response object has these properties:

    • data{string|Object} – The response body transformed with the transform functions.
    • status{number} – HTTP status code of the response.
    • headers{function([headerName])} – Header getter function.
    • config{Object} – The configuration object that was used to generate the request.

    @property {Array.<Object>} pendingRequests Array of config objects for currently pending requests. This is primarily meant to be used for debugging purposes.

    @example <example> <file name="index.html"> <div ng-controller="FetchCtrl"> <select ng-model="method"> <option>GET</option> <option>JSONP</option> </select> <input type="text" ng-model="url" size="80"/> <button ng-click="fetch()">fetch</button><br> <button ng-click="updateModel('GET', 'http-hello.html')">Sample GET</button> <button ng-click="updateModel('JSONP', 'http://angularjs.org/greet.php?callback=JSONCALLBACK&name=Super%20Hero')">Sample JSONP</button> <button ng-click="updateModel('JSONP', 'http://angularjs.org/doesntexist&callback=JSONCALLBACK')">Invalid JSONP</button> <pre>http status code: {{status}}</pre> <pre>http response data: {{data}}</pre> </div> </file> <file name="script.js"> function FetchCtrl($scope, $http, $templateCache) { $scope.method = 'GET'; $scope.url = 'http-hello.html';

        $scope.fetch = function() {       $scope.code = null;       $scope.response = null; 
      $http({method: $scope.method, url: $scope.url, cache: $templateCache}).     success(function(data, status) {       $scope.status = status;       $scope.data = data;     }).     error(function(data, status) {       $scope.data = data || &amp;quot;Request failed&amp;quot;;       $scope.status = status;   }); }; $scope.updateModel = function(method, url) {   $scope.method = method;   $scope.url = url; }; 
    } &lt;/file&gt; &lt;file name=&quot;http-hello.html&quot;&gt; Hello, $http! &lt;/file&gt; &lt;file name=&quot;scenario.js&quot;&gt; it(&#39;should make an xhr GET request&#39;, function() { element(&#39;:button:contains(&quot;Sample GET&quot;)&#39;).click(); element(&#39;:button:contains(&quot;fetch&quot;)&#39;).click(); expect(binding(&#39;status&#39;)).toBe(&#39;200&#39;); expect(binding(&#39;data&#39;)).toMatch(/Hello, \$http!/); }); it(&#39;should make a JSONP request to angularjs.org&#39;, function() { element(&#39;:button:contains(&quot;Sample JSONP&quot;)&#39;).click(); element(&#39;:button:contains(&quot;fetch&quot;)&#39;).click(); expect(binding(&#39;status&#39;)).toBe(&#39;200&#39;); expect(binding(&#39;data&#39;)).toMatch(/Super Hero!/); }); it(&#39;should make JSONP request to invalid URL and invoke the error handler&#39;, function() { element(&#39;:button:contains(&quot;Invalid JSONP&quot;)&#39;).click(); element(&#39;:button:contains(&quot;fetch&quot;)&#39;).click(); expect(binding(&#39;status&#39;)).toBe(&#39;0&#39;); expect(binding(&#39;data&#39;)).toBe(&#39;Request failed&#39;); }); &lt;/file&gt;

    </example>

    function $http(config) {
      config.method = uppercase(config.method);

      var reqTransformFn = config.transformRequest || $config.transformRequest,
          respTransformFn = config.transformResponse || $config.transformResponse,
          defHeaders = $config.headers,
          reqHeaders = extend({'X-XSRF-TOKEN': $browser.cookies()['XSRF-TOKEN']},
              defHeaders.common, defHeaders[lowercase(config.method)], config.headers),
          reqData = transformData(config.data, headersGetter(reqHeaders), reqTransformFn),
          promise;

strip content-type if data is undefined

      if (isUndefined(config.data)) {
        delete reqHeaders['Content-Type'];
      }

send request

      promise = sendReq(config, reqData, reqHeaders);

transform future response

      promise = promise.then(transformResponse, transformResponse);

apply interceptors

      forEach(responseInterceptors, function(interceptor) {
        promise = interceptor(promise);
      });

      promise.success = function(fn) {
        promise.then(function(response) {
          fn(response.data, response.status, response.headers, config);
        });
        return promise;
      };

      promise.error = function(fn) {
        promise.then(null, function(response) {
          fn(response.data, response.status, response.headers, config);
        });
        return promise;
      };

      return promise;

      function transformResponse(response) {

make a copy since the response must be cacheable

        var resp = extend({}, response, {
          data: transformData(response.data, response.headers, respTransformFn)
        });
        return (isSuccess(response.status))
          ? resp
          : $q.reject(resp);
      }
    }

    $http.pendingRequests = [];

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$http#get

@methodOf ng.$http

@description Shortcut method to perform GET request

@param {string} url Relative or absolute URL specifying the destination of the request

@param {Object=} config Optional configuration object

@returns {HttpPromise} Future object

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$http#delete

@methodOf ng.$http

@description Shortcut method to perform DELETE request

@param {string} url Relative or absolute URL specifying the destination of the request

@param {Object=} config Optional configuration object

@returns {HttpPromise} Future object

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$http#head

@methodOf ng.$http

@description Shortcut method to perform HEAD request

@param {string} url Relative or absolute URL specifying the destination of the request

@param {Object=} config Optional configuration object

@returns {HttpPromise} Future object

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$http#jsonp

@methodOf ng.$http

@description Shortcut method to perform JSONP request

@param {string} url Relative or absolute URL specifying the destination of the request. Should contain JSON_CALLBACK string.

@param {Object=} config Optional configuration object

@returns {HttpPromise} Future object

    createShortMethods('get', 'delete', 'head', 'jsonp');

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$http#post

@methodOf ng.$http

@description Shortcut method to perform POST request

@param {string} url Relative or absolute URL specifying the destination of the request

@param {*} data Request content

@param {Object=} config Optional configuration object

@returns {HttpPromise} Future object

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$http#put

@methodOf ng.$http

@description Shortcut method to perform PUT request

@param {string} url Relative or absolute URL specifying the destination of the request

@param {*} data Request content

@param {Object=} config Optional configuration object

@returns {HttpPromise} Future object

    createShortMethodsWithData('post', 'put');

@ngdoc property

@name ng.$http#defaults

@propertyOf ng.$http

@description Runtime equivalent of the $httpProvider.defaults property. Allows configuration of default headers as well as request and response transformations.

See "Setting HTTP Headers" and "Transforming Requests and Responses" sections above.

    $http.defaults = $config;


    return $http;


    function createShortMethods(names) {
      forEach(arguments, function(name) {
        $http[name] = function(url, config) {
          return $http(extend(config || {}, {
            method: name,
            url: url
          }));
        };
      });
    }


    function createShortMethodsWithData(name) {
      forEach(arguments, function(name) {
        $http[name] = function(url, data, config) {
          return $http(extend(config || {}, {
            method: name,
            url: url,
            data: data
          }));
        };
      });
    }

Makes the request

!!! ACCESSES CLOSURE VARS: $httpBackend, $config, $log, $rootScope, defaultCache, $http.pendingRequests

    function sendReq(config, reqData, reqHeaders) {
      var deferred = $q.defer(),
          promise = deferred.promise,
          cache,
          cachedResp,
          url = buildUrl(config.url, config.params);

      $http.pendingRequests.push(config);
      promise.then(removePendingReq, removePendingReq);


      if (config.cache && config.method == 'GET') {
        cache = isObject(config.cache) ? config.cache : defaultCache;
      }

      if (cache) {
        cachedResp = cache.get(url);
        if (cachedResp) {
          if (cachedResp.then) {

cached request has already been sent, but there is no response yet

            cachedResp.then(removePendingReq, removePendingReq);
            return cachedResp;
          } else {

serving from cache

            if (isArray(cachedResp)) {
              resolvePromise(cachedResp[1], cachedResp[0], copy(cachedResp[2]));
            } else {
              resolvePromise(cachedResp, 200, {});
            }
          }
        } else {

put the promise for the non-transformed response into cache as a placeholder

          cache.put(url, promise);
        }
      }

if we won't have the response in cache, send the request to the backend

      if (!cachedResp) {
        $httpBackend(config.method, url, reqData, done, reqHeaders, config.timeout,
            config.withCredentials);
      }

      return promise;

Callback registered to $httpBackend(): - caches the response if desired - resolves the raw $http promise - calls $apply

      function done(status, response, headersString) {
        if (cache) {
          if (isSuccess(status)) {
            cache.put(url, [status, response, parseHeaders(headersString)]);
          } else {

remove promise from the cache

            cache.remove(url);
          }
        }

        resolvePromise(response, status, headersString);
        $rootScope.$apply();
      }

Resolves the raw $http promise.

      function resolvePromise(response, status, headers) {

normalize internal statuses to 0

        status = Math.max(status, 0);

        (isSuccess(status) ? deferred.resolve : deferred.reject)({
          data: response,
          status: status,
          headers: headersGetter(headers),
          config: config
        });
      }


      function removePendingReq() {
        var idx = indexOf($http.pendingRequests, config);
        if (idx !== -1) $http.pendingRequests.splice(idx, 1);
      }
    }


    function buildUrl(url, params) {
          if (!params) return url;
          var parts = [];
          forEachSorted(params, function(value, key) {
            if (value == null || value == undefined) return;
            if (isObject(value)) {
              value = toJson(value);
            }
            parts.push(encodeURIComponent(key) + '=' + encodeURIComponent(value));
          });
          return url + ((url.indexOf('?') == -1) ? '?' : '&') + parts.join('&');
        }


  }];
}

var XHR = window.XMLHttpRequest || function() {
  try { return new ActiveXObject("Msxml2.XMLHTTP.6.0"); } catch (e1) {}
  try { return new ActiveXObject("Msxml2.XMLHTTP.3.0"); } catch (e2) {}
  try { return new ActiveXObject("Msxml2.XMLHTTP"); } catch (e3) {}
  throw new Error("This browser does not support XMLHttpRequest.");
};

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$httpBackend

@requires $browser

@requires $window

@requires $document

@description HTTP backend used by the {@link ng.$http service} that delegates to XMLHttpRequest object or JSONP and deals with browser incompatibilities.

You should never need to use this service directly, instead use the higher-level abstractions: {@link ng.$http $http} or {@link ngResource.$resource $resource}.

During testing this implementation is swapped with {@link ngMock.$httpBackend mock $httpBackend} which can be trained with responses.

function $HttpBackendProvider() {
  this.$get = ['$browser', '$window', '$document', function($browser, $window, $document) {
    return createHttpBackend($browser, XHR, $browser.defer, $window.angular.callbacks,
        $document[0], $window.location.protocol.replace(':', ''));
  }];
}

function createHttpBackend($browser, XHR, $browserDefer, callbacks, rawDocument, locationProtocol) {

TODO(vojta): fix the signature

  return function(method, url, post, callback, headers, timeout, withCredentials) {
    $browser.$$incOutstandingRequestCount();
    url = url || $browser.url();

    if (lowercase(method) == 'jsonp') {
      var callbackId = '_' + (callbacks.counter++).toString(36);
      callbacks[callbackId] = function(data) {
        callbacks[callbackId].data = data;
      };

      jsonpReq(url.replace('JSON_CALLBACK', 'angular.callbacks.' + callbackId),
          function() {
        if (callbacks[callbackId].data) {
          completeRequest(callback, 200, callbacks[callbackId].data);
        } else {
          completeRequest(callback, -2);
        }
        delete callbacks[callbackId];
      });
    } else {
      var xhr = new XHR();
      xhr.open(method, url, true);
      forEach(headers, function(value, key) {
        if (value) xhr.setRequestHeader(key, value);
      });

      var status;

In IE6 and 7, this might be called synchronously when xhr.send below is called and the response is in the cache. the promise api will ensure that to the app code the api is always async

      xhr.onreadystatechange = function() {
        if (xhr.readyState == 4) {
          var responseHeaders = xhr.getAllResponseHeaders();

TODO(vojta): remove once Firefox 21 gets released. begin: workaround to overcome Firefox CORS http response headers bug https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=608735 Firefox already patched in nightly. Should land in Firefox 21.

CORS "simple response headers" http://www.w3.org/TR/cors/

          var value,
              simpleHeaders = ["Cache-Control", "Content-Language", "Content-Type",
                                  "Expires", "Last-Modified", "Pragma"];
          if (!responseHeaders) {
            responseHeaders = "";
            forEach(simpleHeaders, function (header) {
              var value = xhr.getResponseHeader(header);
              if (value) {
                  responseHeaders += header + ": " + value + "\n";
              }
            });
          }

end of the workaround.

          completeRequest(callback, status || xhr.status, xhr.responseText,
                          responseHeaders);
        }
      };

      if (withCredentials) {
        xhr.withCredentials = true;
      }

      xhr.send(post || '');

      if (timeout > 0) {
        $browserDefer(function() {
          status = -1;
          xhr.abort();
        }, timeout);
      }
    }


    function completeRequest(callback, status, response, headersString) {

URL_MATCH is defined in src/service/location.js

      var protocol = (url.match(URL_MATCH) || ['', locationProtocol])[1];

fix status code for file protocol (it's always 0)

      status = (protocol == 'file') ? (response ? 200 : 404) : status;

normalize IE bug (http://bugs.jquery.com/ticket/1450)

      status = status == 1223 ? 204 : status;

      callback(status, response, headersString);
      $browser.$$completeOutstandingRequest(noop);
    }
  };

  function jsonpReq(url, done) {

we can't use jQuery/jqLite here because jQuery does crazy shit with script elements, e.g.: - fetches local scripts via XHR and evals them - adds and immediately removes script elements from the document

    var script = rawDocument.createElement('script'),
        doneWrapper = function() {
          rawDocument.body.removeChild(script);
          if (done) done();
        };

    script.type = 'text/javascript';
    script.src = url;

    if (msie) {
      script.onreadystatechange = function() {
        if (/loaded|complete/.test(script.readyState)) doneWrapper();
      };
    } else {
      script.onload = script.onerror = doneWrapper;
    }

    rawDocument.body.appendChild(script);
  }
}

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$locale

@description $locale service provides localization rules for various Angular components. As of right now the only public api is:

  • id{string} – locale id formatted as languageId-countryId (e.g. en-us)
function $LocaleProvider(){
  this.$get = function() {
    return {
      id: 'en-us',

      NUMBER_FORMATS: {
        DECIMAL_SEP: '.',
        GROUP_SEP: ',',
        PATTERNS: [
          { // Decimal Pattern
            minInt: 1,
            minFrac: 0,
            maxFrac: 3,
            posPre: '',
            posSuf: '',
            negPre: '-',
            negSuf: '',
            gSize: 3,
            lgSize: 3
          },{ //Currency Pattern
            minInt: 1,
            minFrac: 2,
            maxFrac: 2,
            posPre: '\u00A4',
            posSuf: '',
            negPre: '(\u00A4',
            negSuf: ')',
            gSize: 3,
            lgSize: 3
          }
        ],
        CURRENCY_SYM: '$'
      },

      DATETIME_FORMATS: {
        MONTH: 'January,February,March,April,May,June,July,August,September,October,November,December'
                .split(','),
        SHORTMONTH:  'Jan,Feb,Mar,Apr,May,Jun,Jul,Aug,Sep,Oct,Nov,Dec'.split(','),
        DAY: 'Sunday,Monday,Tuesday,Wednesday,Thursday,Friday,Saturday'.split(','),
        SHORTDAY: 'Sun,Mon,Tue,Wed,Thu,Fri,Sat'.split(','),
        AMPMS: ['AM','PM'],
        medium: 'MMM d, y h:mm:ss a',
        short: 'M/d/yy h:mm a',
        fullDate: 'EEEE, MMMM d, y',
        longDate: 'MMMM d, y',
        mediumDate: 'MMM d, y',
        shortDate: 'M/d/yy',
        mediumTime: 'h:mm:ss a',
        shortTime: 'h:mm a'
      },

      pluralCat: function(num) {
        if (num === 1) {
          return 'one';
        }
        return 'other';
      }
    };
  };
}

function $TimeoutProvider() {
  this.$get = ['$rootScope', '$browser', '$q', '$exceptionHandler',
       function($rootScope,   $browser,   $q,   $exceptionHandler) {
    var deferreds = {};

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$timeout

@requires $browser

@description Angular's wrapper for window.setTimeout. The fn function is wrapped into a try/catch block and delegates any exceptions to {@link ng.$exceptionHandler $exceptionHandler} service.

The return value of registering a timeout function is a promise which will be resolved when the timeout is reached and the timeout function is executed.

To cancel a the timeout request, call $timeout.cancel(promise).

In tests you can use {@link ngMock.$timeout $timeout.flush()} to synchronously flush the queue of deferred functions.

@param {function()} fn A function, who's execution should be delayed.

@param {number=} [delay=0] Delay in milliseconds.

@param {boolean=} [invokeApply=true] If set to false skips model dirty checking, otherwise will invoke fn within the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$apply $apply} block.

@returns {Promise} Promise that will be resolved when the timeout is reached. The value this promise will be resolved with is the return value of the fn function.

    function timeout(fn, delay, invokeApply) {
      var deferred = $q.defer(),
          promise = deferred.promise,
          skipApply = (isDefined(invokeApply) && !invokeApply),
          timeoutId, cleanup;

      timeoutId = $browser.defer(function() {
        try {
          deferred.resolve(fn());
        } catch(e) {
          deferred.reject(e);
          $exceptionHandler(e);
        }

        if (!skipApply) $rootScope.$apply();
      }, delay);

      cleanup = function() {
        delete deferreds[promise.$$timeoutId];
      };

      promise.$$timeoutId = timeoutId;
      deferreds[timeoutId] = deferred;
      promise.then(cleanup, cleanup);

      return promise;
    }

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$timeout#cancel

@methodOf ng.$timeout

@description Cancels a task associated with the promise. As a result of this the promise will be resolved with a rejection.

@param {Promise=} promise Promise returned by the $timeout function.

@returns {boolean} Returns true if the task hasn't executed yet and was successfully canceled.

    timeout.cancel = function(promise) {
      if (promise && promise.$$timeoutId in deferreds) {
        deferreds[promise.$$timeoutId].reject('canceled');
        return $browser.defer.cancel(promise.$$timeoutId);
      }
      return false;
    };

    return timeout;
  }];
}

@ngdoc object

@name ng.$filterProvider

@description

Filters are just functions which transform input to an output. However filters need to be Dependency Injected. To achieve this a filter definition consists of a factory function which is annotated with dependencies and is responsible for creating a filter function.

<pre> // Filter registration function MyModule($provide, $filterProvider) { // create a service to demonstrate injection (not always needed) $provide.value('greet', function(name){ return 'Hello ' + name + '!'; });

 // register a filter factory which uses the  // greet service to demonstrate DI.  $filterProvider.register(&#39;greet&#39;, function(greet){    // return the filter function which uses the greet service    // to generate salutation    return function(text) {      // filters need to be forgiving so check input validity      return text &amp;&amp; greet(text) || text;    };  }); 

} </pre>

The filter function is registered with the $injector under the filter name suffixe with Filter. <pre> it('should be the same instance', inject( function($filterProvider) { $filterProvider.register('reverse', function(){ return ...; }); }, function($filter, reverseFilter) { expect($filter('reverse')).toBe(reverseFilter); }); </pre>

For more information about how angular filters work, and how to create your own filters, see {@link guide/dev_guide.templates.filters Understanding Angular Filters} in the angular Developer Guide.

@ngdoc method

@name ng.$filterProvider#register

@methodOf ng.$filterProvider

@description Register filter factory function.

@param {String} name Name of the filter.

@param {function} fn The filter factory function which is injectable.

@ngdoc function

@name ng.$filter

@function

@description Filters are used for formatting data displayed to the user.

The general syntax in templates is as follows:

     {{ expression | [ filter_name ] }} 

@param {String} name Name of the filter function to retrieve

@return {Function} the filter function

$FilterProvider.$inject = ['$provide'];
function $FilterProvider($provide) {
  var suffix = 'Filter';

  function register(name, factory) {
    return $provide.factory(name + suffix, factory);
  }
  this.register = register;

  this.$get = ['$injector', function($injector) {
    return function(name) {
      return $injector.get(name + suffix);
    }
  }];

//////////////////////////////////////

  register('currency', currencyFilter);
  register('date', dateFilter);
  register('filter', filterFilter);
  register('json', jsonFilter);
  register('limitTo', limitToFilter);
  register('lowercase', lowercaseFilter);
  register('number', numberFilter);
  register('orderBy', orderByFilter);
  register('uppercase', uppercaseFilter);
}

@ngdoc filter

@name ng.filter:filter

@function

@description Selects a subset of items from array and returns it as a new array.

Note: This function is used to augment the Array type in Angular expressions. See {@link ng.$filter} for more information about Angular arrays.

@param {Array} array The source array.

@param {string|Object|function()} expression The predicate to be used for selecting items from array.

Can be one of:

  • string: Predicate that results in a substring match using the value of expression string. All strings or objects with string properties in array that contain this string will be returned. The predicate can be negated by prefixing the string with !.

  • Object: A pattern object can be used to filter specific properties on objects contained by array. For example {name:&quot;M&quot;, phone:&quot;1&quot;} predicate will return an array of items which have property name containing "M" and property phone containing "1". A special property name $ can be used (as in {$:&quot;text&quot;}) to accept a match against any property of the object. That's equivalent to the simple substring match with a string as described above.

  • function: A predicate function can be used to write arbitrary filters. The function is called for each element of array. The final result is an array of those elements that the predicate returned true for.

    @example <doc:example> <doc:source> <div ng-init="friends = [{name:'John', phone:'555-1276'}, {name:'Mary', phone:'800-BIG-MARY'}, {name:'Mike', phone:'555-4321'}, {name:'Adam', phone:'555-5678'}, {name:'Julie', phone:'555-8765'}]"></div>

    Search: <input ng-model="searchText"> <table id="searchTextResults"> <tr><th>Name</th><th>Phone</th></tr> <tr ng-repeat="friend in friends | filter:searchText"> <td>{{friend.name}}</td> <td>{{friend.phone}}</td> </tr> </table> <hr> Any: <input ng-model="search.$"> <br> Name only <input ng-model="search.name"><br> Phone only <input ng-model="search.phone"å><br> <table id="searchObjResults"> <tr><th>Name</th><th>Phone</th></tr> <tr ng-repeat="friend in friends | filter:search"> <td>{{friend.name}}</td> <td>{{friend.phone}}</td> </tr> </table> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should search across all fields when filtering with a string', function() { input('searchText').enter('m'); expect(repeater('#searchTextResults tr', 'friend in friends').column('friend.name')). toEqual(['Mary', 'Mike', 'Adam']);

     input(&#39;searchText&#39;).enter(&#39;76&#39;);  expect(repeater(&#39;#searchTextResults tr&#39;, &#39;friend in friends&#39;).column(&#39;friend.name&#39;)).    toEqual([&#39;John&#39;, &#39;Julie&#39;]); 

    });

    it('should search in specific fields when filtering with a predicate object', function() { input('search.$').enter('i'); expect(repeater('#searchObjResults tr', 'friend in friends').column('friend.name')). toEqual(['Mary', 'Mike', 'Julie']); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

function filterFilter() {
  return function(array, expression) {
    if (!isArray(array)) return array;
    var predicates = [];
    predicates.check = function(value) {
      for (var j = 0; j < predicates.length; j++) {
        if(!predicates[j](value)) {
          return false;
        }
      }
      return true;
    };
    var search = function(obj, text){
      if (text.charAt(0) === '!') {
        return !search(obj, text.substr(1));
      }
      switch (typeof obj) {
        case "boolean":
        case "number":
        case "string":
          return ('' + obj).toLowerCase().indexOf(text) > -1;
        case "object":
          for ( var objKey in obj) {
            if (objKey.charAt(0) !== '$' && search(obj[objKey], text)) {
              return true;
            }
          }
          return false;
        case "array":
          for ( var i = 0; i < obj.length; i++) {
            if (search(obj[i], text)) {
              return true;
            }
          }
          return false;
        default:
          return false;
      }
    };
    switch (typeof expression) {
      case "boolean":
      case "number":
      case "string":
        expression = {$:expression};
      case "object":
        for (var key in expression) {
          if (key == '$') {
            (function() {
              var text = (''+expression[key]).toLowerCase();
              if (!text) return;
              predicates.push(function(value) {
                return search(value, text);
              });
            })();
          } else {
            (function() {
              var path = key;
              var text = (''+expression[key]).toLowerCase();
              if (!text) return;
              predicates.push(function(value) {
                return search(getter(value, path), text);
              });
            })();
          }
        }
        break;
      case 'function':
        predicates.push(expression);
        break;
      default:
        return array;
    }
    var filtered = [];
    for ( var j = 0; j < array.length; j++) {
      var value = array[j];
      if (predicates.check(value)) {
        filtered.push(value);
      }
    }
    return filtered;
  }
}

@ngdoc filter

@name ng.filter:currency

@function

@description Formats a number as a currency (ie $1,234.56). When no currency symbol is provided, default symbol for current locale is used.

@param {number} amount Input to filter.

@param {string=} symbol Currency symbol or identifier to be displayed.

@returns {string} Formatted number.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.amount = 1234.56; } </script> <div ng-controller="Ctrl"> <input type="number" ng-model="amount"> <br> default currency symbol ($): {{amount | currency}}<br> custom currency identifier (USD$): {{amount | currency:"USD$"}} </div> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should init with 1234.56', function() { expect(binding('amount | currency')).toBe('$1,234.56'); expect(binding('amount | currency:"USD$"')).toBe('USD$1,234.56'); }); it('should update', function() { input('amount').enter('-1234'); expect(binding('amount | currency')).toBe('($1,234.00)'); expect(binding('amount | currency:"USD$"')).toBe('(USD$1,234.00)'); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

currencyFilter.$inject = ['$locale'];
function currencyFilter($locale) {
  var formats = $locale.NUMBER_FORMATS;
  return function(amount, currencySymbol){
    if (isUndefined(currencySymbol)) currencySymbol = formats.CURRENCY_SYM;
    return formatNumber(amount, formats.PATTERNS[1], formats.GROUP_SEP, formats.DECIMAL_SEP, 2).
                replace(/\u00A4/g, currencySymbol);
  };
}

@ngdoc filter

@name ng.filter:number

@function

@description Formats a number as text.

If the input is not a number an empty string is returned.

@param {number|string} number Number to format.

@param {(number|string)=} [fractionSize=2] Number of decimal places to round the number to.

@returns {string} Number rounded to decimalPlaces and places a “,” after each third digit.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.val = 1234.56789; } </script> <div ng-controller="Ctrl"> Enter number: <input ng-model='val'><br> Default formatting: {{val | number}}<br> No fractions: {{val | number:0}}<br> Negative number: {{-val | number:4}} </div> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should format numbers', function() { expect(binding('val | number')).toBe('1,234.568'); expect(binding('val | number:0')).toBe('1,235'); expect(binding('-val | number:4')).toBe('-1,234.5679'); });

   it(&#39;should update&#39;, function() {      input(&#39;val&#39;).enter(&#39;3374.333&#39;);      expect(binding(&#39;val | number&#39;)).toBe(&#39;3,374.333&#39;);      expect(binding(&#39;val | number:0&#39;)).toBe(&#39;3,374&#39;);      expect(binding(&#39;-val | number:4&#39;)).toBe(&#39;-3,374.3330&#39;);    });  &lt;/doc:scenario&gt; 

</doc:example>

numberFilter.$inject = ['$locale'];
function numberFilter($locale) {
  var formats = $locale.NUMBER_FORMATS;
  return function(number, fractionSize) {
    return formatNumber(number, formats.PATTERNS[0], formats.GROUP_SEP, formats.DECIMAL_SEP,
      fractionSize);
  };
}

var DECIMAL_SEP = '.';
function formatNumber(number, pattern, groupSep, decimalSep, fractionSize) {
  if (isNaN(number) || !isFinite(number)) return '';

  var isNegative = number < 0;
  number = Math.abs(number);
  var numStr = number + '',
      formatedText = '',
      parts = [];

  var hasExponent = false;
  if (numStr.indexOf('e') !== -1) {
    var match = numStr.match(/([\d\.]+)e(-?)(\d+)/);
    if (match && match[2] == '-' && match[3] > fractionSize + 1) {
      numStr = '0';
    } else {
      formatedText = numStr;
      hasExponent = true;
    }
  }

  if (!hasExponent) {
    var fractionLen = (numStr.split(DECIMAL_SEP)[1] || '').length;

determine fractionSize if it is not specified

    if (isUndefined(fractionSize)) {
      fractionSize = Math.min(Math.max(pattern.minFrac, fractionLen), pattern.maxFrac);
    }

    var pow = Math.pow(10, fractionSize);
    number = Math.round(number * pow) / pow;
    var fraction = ('' + number).split(DECIMAL_SEP);
    var whole = fraction[0];
    fraction = fraction[1] || '';

    var pos = 0,
        lgroup = pattern.lgSize,
        group = pattern.gSize;

    if (whole.length >= (lgroup + group)) {
      pos = whole.length - lgroup;
      for (var i = 0; i < pos; i++) {
        if ((pos - i)%group === 0 && i !== 0) {
          formatedText += groupSep;
        }
        formatedText += whole.charAt(i);
      }
    }

    for (i = pos; i < whole.length; i++) {
      if ((whole.length - i)%lgroup === 0 && i !== 0) {
        formatedText += groupSep;
      }
      formatedText += whole.charAt(i);
    }

format fraction part.

    while(fraction.length < fractionSize) {
      fraction += '0';
    }

    if (fractionSize && fractionSize !== "0") formatedText += decimalSep + fraction.substr(0, fractionSize);
  }

  parts.push(isNegative ? pattern.negPre : pattern.posPre);
  parts.push(formatedText);
  parts.push(isNegative ? pattern.negSuf : pattern.posSuf);
  return parts.join('');
}

function padNumber(num, digits, trim) {
  var neg = '';
  if (num < 0) {
    neg =  '-';
    num = -num;
  }
  num = '' + num;
  while(num.length < digits) num = '0' + num;
  if (trim)
    num = num.substr(num.length - digits);
  return neg + num;
}


function dateGetter(name, size, offset, trim) {
  return function(date) {
    var value = date['get' + name]();
    if (offset > 0 || value > -offset)
      value += offset;
    if (value === 0 && offset == -12 ) value = 12;
    return padNumber(value, size, trim);
  };
}

function dateStrGetter(name, shortForm) {
  return function(date, formats) {
    var value = date['get' + name]();
    var get = uppercase(shortForm ? ('SHORT' + name) : name);

    return formats[get][value];
  };
}

function timeZoneGetter(date) {
  var zone = -1 * date.getTimezoneOffset();
  var paddedZone = (zone >= 0) ? "+" : "";

  paddedZone += padNumber(Math[zone > 0 ? 'floor' : 'ceil'](zone / 60), 2) +
                padNumber(Math.abs(zone % 60), 2);

  return paddedZone;
}

function ampmGetter(date, formats) {
  return date.getHours() < 12 ? formats.AMPMS[0] : formats.AMPMS[1];
}

var DATE_FORMATS = {
  yyyy: dateGetter('FullYear', 4),
    yy: dateGetter('FullYear', 2, 0, true),
     y: dateGetter('FullYear', 1),
  MMMM: dateStrGetter('Month'),
   MMM: dateStrGetter('Month', true),
    MM: dateGetter('Month', 2, 1),
     M: dateGetter('Month', 1, 1),
    dd: dateGetter('Date', 2),
     d: dateGetter('Date', 1),
    HH: dateGetter('Hours', 2),
     H: dateGetter('Hours', 1),
    hh: dateGetter('Hours', 2, -12),
     h: dateGetter('Hours', 1, -12),
    mm: dateGetter('Minutes', 2),
     m: dateGetter('Minutes', 1),
    ss: dateGetter('Seconds', 2),
     s: dateGetter('Seconds', 1),
  EEEE: dateStrGetter('Day'),
   EEE: dateStrGetter('Day', true),
     a: ampmGetter,
     Z: timeZoneGetter
};

var DATE_FORMATS_SPLIT = /((?:[^yMdHhmsaZE']+)|(?:'(?:[^']|'')*')|(?:E+|y+|M+|d+|H+|h+|m+|s+|a|Z))(.*)/,
    NUMBER_STRING = /^\d+$/;

@ngdoc filter

@name ng.filter:date

@function

@description Formats date to a string based on the requested format.

format string can be composed of the following elements:

  • &#39;yyyy&#39;: 4 digit representation of year (e.g. AD 1 => 0001, AD 2010 => 2010)
  • &#39;yy&#39;: 2 digit representation of year, padded (00-99). (e.g. AD 2001 => 01, AD 2010 => 10)
  • &#39;y&#39;: 1 digit representation of year, e.g. (AD 1 => 1, AD 199 => 199)
  • &#39;MMMM&#39;: Month in year (January-December)
  • &#39;MMM&#39;: Month in year (Jan-Dec)
  • &#39;MM&#39;: Month in year, padded (01-12)
  • &#39;M&#39;: Month in year (1-12)
  • &#39;dd&#39;: Day in month, padded (01-31)
  • &#39;d&#39;: Day in month (1-31)
  • &#39;EEEE&#39;: Day in Week,(Sunday-Saturday)
  • &#39;EEE&#39;: Day in Week, (Sun-Sat)
  • &#39;HH&#39;: Hour in day, padded (00-23)
  • &#39;H&#39;: Hour in day (0-23)
  • &#39;hh&#39;: Hour in am/pm, padded (01-12)
  • &#39;h&#39;: Hour in am/pm, (1-12)
  • &#39;mm&#39;: Minute in hour, padded (00-59)
  • &#39;m&#39;: Minute in hour (0-59)
  • &#39;ss&#39;: Second in minute, padded (00-59)
  • &#39;s&#39;: Second in minute (0-59)
  • &#39;a&#39;: am/pm marker
  • &#39;Z&#39;: 4 digit (+sign) representation of the timezone offset (-1200-+1200)

    format string can also be one of the following predefined {@link guide/i18n localizable formats}:

  • &#39;medium&#39;: equivalent to &#39;MMM d, y h:mm:ss a&#39; for en_US locale (e.g. Sep 3, 2010 12:05:08 pm)

  • &#39;short&#39;: equivalent to &#39;M/d/yy h:mm a&#39; for en_US locale (e.g. 9/3/10 12:05 pm)
  • &#39;fullDate&#39;: equivalent to &#39;EEEE, MMMM d,y&#39; for en_US locale (e.g. Friday, September 3, 2010)
  • &#39;longDate&#39;: equivalent to &#39;MMMM d, y&#39; for en_US locale (e.g. September 3, 2010
  • &#39;mediumDate&#39;: equivalent to &#39;MMM d, y&#39; for en_US locale (e.g. Sep 3, 2010)
  • &#39;shortDate&#39;: equivalent to &#39;M/d/yy&#39; for en_US locale (e.g. 9/3/10)
  • &#39;mediumTime&#39;: equivalent to &#39;h:mm:ss a&#39; for en_US locale (e.g. 12:05:08 pm)
  • &#39;shortTime&#39;: equivalent to &#39;h:mm a&#39; for en_US locale (e.g. 12:05 pm)

    format string can contain literal values. These need to be quoted with single quotes (e.g. &quot;h &#39;in the morning&#39;&quot;). In order to output single quote, use two single quotes in a sequence (e.g. &quot;h o&#39;&#39;clock&quot;).

    @param {(Date|number|string)} date Date to format either as Date object, milliseconds (string or number) or various ISO 8601 datetime string formats (e.g. yyyy-MM-ddTHH:mm:ss.SSSZ and it's shorter versions like yyyy-MM-ddTHH:mmZ, yyyy-MM-dd or yyyyMMddTHHmmssZ). If no timezone is specified in the string input, the time is considered to be in the local timezone.

    @param {string=} format Formatting rules (see Description). If not specified, mediumDate is used.

    @returns {string} Formatted string or the input if input is not recognized as date/millis.

    @example <doc:example> <doc:source> <span ng-non-bindable>{{1288323623006 | date:'medium'}}</span>: {{1288323623006 | date:'medium'}}<br> <span ng-non-bindable>{{1288323623006 | date:'yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss Z'}}</span>: {{1288323623006 | date:'yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss Z'}}<br> <span ng-non-bindable>{{1288323623006 | date:'MM/dd/yyyy @ h:mma'}}</span>: {{'1288323623006' | date:'MM/dd/yyyy @ h:mma'}}<br> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should format date', function() { expect(binding("1288323623006 | date:'medium'")). toMatch(/Oct 2\d, 2010 \d{1,2}:\d{2}:\d{2} (AM|PM)/); expect(binding("1288323623006 | date:'yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss Z'")). toMatch(/2010-10-2\d \d{2}:\d{2}:\d{2} (-|+)?\d{4}/); expect(binding("'1288323623006' | date:'MM/dd/yyyy @ h:mma'")). toMatch(/10\/2\d\/2010 @ \d{1,2}:\d{2}(AM|PM)/); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

dateFilter.$inject = ['$locale'];
function dateFilter($locale) {


  var R_ISO8601_STR = /^(\d{4})-?(\d\d)-?(\d\d)(?:T(\d\d)(?::?(\d\d)(?::?(\d\d)(?:\.(\d+))?)?)?(Z|([+-])(\d\d):?(\d\d))?)?$/;
  function jsonStringToDate(string){
    var match;
    if (match = string.match(R_ISO8601_STR)) {
      var date = new Date(0),
          tzHour = 0,
          tzMin  = 0;
      if (match[9]) {
        tzHour = int(match[9] + match[10]);
        tzMin = int(match[9] + match[11]);
      }
      date.setUTCFullYear(int(match[1]), int(match[2]) - 1, int(match[3]));
      date.setUTCHours(int(match[4]||0) - tzHour, int(match[5]||0) - tzMin, int(match[6]||0), int(match[7]||0));
      return date;
    }
    return string;
  }


  return function(date, format) {
    var text = '',
        parts = [],
        fn, match;

    format = format || 'mediumDate';
    format = $locale.DATETIME_FORMATS[format] || format;
    if (isString(date)) {
      if (NUMBER_STRING.test(date)) {
        date = int(date);
      } else {
        date = jsonStringToDate(date);
      }
    }

    if (isNumber(date)) {
      date = new Date(date);
    }

    if (!isDate(date)) {
      return date;
    }

    while(format) {
      match = DATE_FORMATS_SPLIT.exec(format);
      if (match) {
        parts = concat(parts, match, 1);
        format = parts.pop();
      } else {
        parts.push(format);
        format = null;
      }
    }

    forEach(parts, function(value){
      fn = DATE_FORMATS[value];
      text += fn ? fn(date, $locale.DATETIME_FORMATS)
                 : value.replace(/(^'|'$)/g, '').replace(/''/g, "'");
    });

    return text;
  };
}

@ngdoc filter

@name ng.filter:json

@function

@description Allows you to convert a JavaScript object into JSON string.

This filter is mostly useful for debugging. When using the double curly {{value}} notation the binding is automatically converted to JSON.

@param {*} object Any JavaScript object (including arrays and primitive types) to filter.

@returns {string} JSON string.

@example: <doc:example> <doc:source> <pre>{{ {'name':'value'} | json }}</pre> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should jsonify filtered objects', function() { expect(binding("{'name':'value'}")).toMatch(/{\n "name": ?"value"\n}/); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

function jsonFilter() {
  return function(object) {
    return toJson(object, true);
  };
}

@ngdoc filter

@name ng.filter:lowercase

@function

@description Converts string to lowercase.

@see angular.lowercase

var lowercaseFilter = valueFn(lowercase);

@ngdoc filter

@name ng.filter:uppercase

@function

@description Converts string to uppercase.

@see angular.uppercase

var uppercaseFilter = valueFn(uppercase);

@ngdoc function

@name ng.filter:limitTo

@function

@description Creates a new array containing only a specified number of elements in an array. The elements are taken from either the beginning or the end of the source array, as specified by the value and sign (positive or negative) of limit.

Note: This function is used to augment the Array type in Angular expressions. See {@link ng.$filter} for more information about Angular arrays.

@param {Array} array Source array to be limited.

@param {string|Number} limit The length of the returned array. If the limit number is positive, limit number of items from the beginning of the source array are copied. If the number is negative, limit number of items from the end of the source array are copied. The limit will be trimmed if it exceeds array.length

@returns {Array} A new sub-array of length limit or less if input array had less than limit elements.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.numbers = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]; $scope.limit = 3; } </script> <div ng-controller="Ctrl"> Limit {{numbers}} to: <input type="integer" ng-model="limit"> <p>Output: {{ numbers | limitTo:limit }}</p> </div> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should limit the numer array to first three items', function() { expect(element('.doc-example-live input[ng-model=limit]').val()).toBe('3'); expect(binding('numbers | limitTo:limit')).toEqual('[1,2,3]'); });

   it(&#39;should update the output when -3 is entered&#39;, function() {      input(&#39;limit&#39;).enter(-3);      expect(binding(&#39;numbers | limitTo:limit&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;[7,8,9]&#39;);    });    it(&#39;should not exceed the maximum size of input array&#39;, function() {      input(&#39;limit&#39;).enter(100);      expect(binding(&#39;numbers | limitTo:limit&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]&#39;);    });  &lt;/doc:scenario&gt; 

</doc:example>

function limitToFilter(){
  return function(array, limit) {
    if (!(array instanceof Array)) return array;
    limit = int(limit);
    var out = [],
      i, n;

check that array is iterable

    if (!array || !(array instanceof Array))
      return out;

if abs(limit) exceeds maximum length, trim it

    if (limit > array.length)
      limit = array.length;
    else if (limit < -array.length)
      limit = -array.length;

    if (limit > 0) {
      i = 0;
      n = limit;
    } else {
      i = array.length + limit;
      n = array.length;
    }

    for (; i<n; i++) {
      out.push(array[i]);
    }

    return out;
  }
}

@ngdoc function

@name ng.filter:orderBy

@function

@description Orders a specified array by the expression predicate.

Note: this function is used to augment the Array type in Angular expressions. See {@link ng.$filter} for more informaton about Angular arrays.

@param {Array} array The array to sort.

@param {function()|string|Array.<(function()|string)>} expression A predicate to be used by the comparator to determine the order of elements.

Can be one of: - `function`: Getter function. The result of this function will be sorted using the   `&lt;`, `=`, `&gt;` operator. - `string`: An Angular expression which evaluates to an object to order by, such as &#39;name&#39;   to sort by a property called &#39;name&#39;. Optionally prefixed with `+` or `-` to control   ascending or descending sort order (for example, +name or -name). - `Array`: An array of function or string predicates. The first predicate in the array   is used for sorting, but when two items are equivalent, the next predicate is used. 

@param {boolean=} reverse Reverse the order the array.

@returns {Array} Sorted copy of the source array.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.friends = [{name:'John', phone:'555-1212', age:10}, {name:'Mary', phone:'555-9876', age:19}, {name:'Mike', phone:'555-4321', age:21}, {name:'Adam', phone:'555-5678', age:35}, {name:'Julie', phone:'555-8765', age:29}] $scope.predicate = '-age'; } </script> <div ng-controller="Ctrl"> <pre>Sorting predicate = {{predicate}}; reverse = {{reverse}}</pre> <hr/> [ <a href="" ng-click="predicate=''">unsorted</a> ] <table class="friend"> <tr> <th><a href="" ng-click="predicate = 'name'; reverse=false">Name</a> (<a href ng-click="predicate = '-name'; reverse=false">^</a>)</th> <th><a href="" ng-click="predicate = 'phone'; reverse=!reverse">Phone Number</a></th> <th><a href="" ng-click="predicate = 'age'; reverse=!reverse">Age</a></th> </tr> <tr ng-repeat="friend in friends | orderBy:predicate:reverse"> <td>{{friend.name}}</td> <td>{{friend.phone}}</td> <td>{{friend.age}}</td> </tr> </table> </div> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should be reverse ordered by aged', function() { expect(binding('predicate')).toBe('-age'); expect(repeater('table.friend', 'friend in friends').column('friend.age')). toEqual(['35', '29', '21', '19', '10']); expect(repeater('table.friend', 'friend in friends').column('friend.name')). toEqual(['Adam', 'Julie', 'Mike', 'Mary', 'John']); });

   it(&#39;should reorder the table when user selects different predicate&#39;, function() {      element(&#39;.doc-example-live a:contains(&quot;Name&quot;)&#39;).click();      expect(repeater(&#39;table.friend&#39;, &#39;friend in friends&#39;).column(&#39;friend.name&#39;)).        toEqual([&#39;Adam&#39;, &#39;John&#39;, &#39;Julie&#39;, &#39;Mary&#39;, &#39;Mike&#39;]);      expect(repeater(&#39;table.friend&#39;, &#39;friend in friends&#39;).column(&#39;friend.age&#39;)).        toEqual([&#39;35&#39;, &#39;10&#39;, &#39;29&#39;, &#39;19&#39;, &#39;21&#39;]);      element(&#39;.doc-example-live a:contains(&quot;Phone&quot;)&#39;).click();      expect(repeater(&#39;table.friend&#39;, &#39;friend in friends&#39;).column(&#39;friend.phone&#39;)).        toEqual([&#39;555-9876&#39;, &#39;555-8765&#39;, &#39;555-5678&#39;, &#39;555-4321&#39;, &#39;555-1212&#39;]);      expect(repeater(&#39;table.friend&#39;, &#39;friend in friends&#39;).column(&#39;friend.name&#39;)).        toEqual([&#39;Mary&#39;, &#39;Julie&#39;, &#39;Adam&#39;, &#39;Mike&#39;, &#39;John&#39;]);    });  &lt;/doc:scenario&gt; 

</doc:example>

orderByFilter.$inject = ['$parse'];
function orderByFilter($parse){
  return function(array, sortPredicate, reverseOrder) {
    if (!isArray(array)) return array;
    if (!sortPredicate) return array;
    sortPredicate = isArray(sortPredicate) ? sortPredicate: [sortPredicate];
    sortPredicate = map(sortPredicate, function(predicate){
      var descending = false, get = predicate || identity;
      if (isString(predicate)) {
        if ((predicate.charAt(0) == '+' || predicate.charAt(0) == '-')) {
          descending = predicate.charAt(0) == '-';
          predicate = predicate.substring(1);
        }
        get = $parse(predicate);
      }
      return reverseComparator(function(a,b){
        return compare(get(a),get(b));
      }, descending);
    });
    var arrayCopy = [];
    for ( var i = 0; i < array.length; i++) { arrayCopy.push(array[i]); }
    return arrayCopy.sort(reverseComparator(comparator, reverseOrder));

    function comparator(o1, o2){
      for ( var i = 0; i < sortPredicate.length; i++) {
        var comp = sortPredicate[i](o1, o2);
        if (comp !== 0) return comp;
      }
      return 0;
    }
    function reverseComparator(comp, descending) {
      return toBoolean(descending)
          ? function(a,b){return comp(b,a);}
          : comp;
    }
    function compare(v1, v2){
      var t1 = typeof v1;
      var t2 = typeof v2;
      if (t1 == t2) {
        if (t1 == "string") v1 = v1.toLowerCase();
        if (t1 == "string") v2 = v2.toLowerCase();
        if (v1 === v2) return 0;
        return v1 < v2 ? -1 : 1;
      } else {
        return t1 < t2 ? -1 : 1;
      }
    }
  }
}

function ngDirective(directive) {
  if (isFunction(directive)) {
    directive = {
      link: directive
    }
  }
  directive.restrict = directive.restrict || 'AC';
  return valueFn(directive);
}

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:a

@restrict E

@description Modifies the default behavior of html A tag, so that the default action is prevented when href attribute is empty.

The reasoning for this change is to allow easy creation of action links with ngClick directive without changing the location or causing page reloads, e.g.: &lt;a href=&quot;&quot; ng-click=&quot;model.$save()&quot;&gt;Save&lt;/a&gt;

var htmlAnchorDirective = valueFn({
  restrict: 'E',
  compile: function(element, attr) {

    if (msie <= 8) {

turn <a href ng-click="..">link</a> into a stylable link in IE but only if it doesn't have name attribute, in which case it's an anchor

      if (!attr.href && !attr.name) {
        attr.$set('href', '');
      }

add a comment node to anchors to workaround IE bug that causes element content to be reset to new attribute content if attribute is updated with value containing @ and element also contains value with @ see issue #1949

      element.append(document.createComment('IE fix'));
    }

    return function(scope, element) {
      element.bind('click', function(event){

if we have no href url, then don't navigate anywhere.

        if (!element.attr('href')) {
          event.preventDefault();
        }
      });
    }
  }
});

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngHref

@restrict A

@description Using Angular markup like {{hash}} in an href attribute makes the page open to a wrong URL, if the user clicks that link before angular has a chance to replace the {{hash}} with actual URL, the link will be broken and will most likely return a 404 error. The ngHref directive solves this problem.

The buggy way to write it: <pre> <a href="http://www.gravatar.com/avatar/{{hash}}"/> </pre>

The correct way to write it: <pre> <a ng-href="http://www.gravatar.com/avatar/{{hash}}"/> </pre>

@element A

@param {template} ngHref any string which can contain {{}} markup.

@example This example uses link variable inside href attribute: <doc:example> <doc:source> <input ng-model="value" /><br /> <a id="link-1" href ng-click="value = 1">link 1</a> (link, don't reload)<br /> <a id="link-2" href="" ng-click="value = 2">link 2</a> (link, don't reload)<br /> <a id="link-3" ng-href="/{{'123'}}">link 3</a> (link, reload!)<br /> <a id="link-4" href="" name="xx" ng-click="value = 4">anchor</a> (link, don't reload)<br /> <a id="link-5" name="xxx" ng-click="value = 5">anchor</a> (no link)<br /> <a id="link-6" ng-href="{{value}}">link</a> (link, change location) </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should execute ng-click but not reload when href without value', function() { element('#link-1').click(); expect(input('value').val()).toEqual('1'); expect(element('#link-1').attr('href')).toBe(""); });

    it(&#39;should execute ng-click but not reload when href empty string&#39;, function() {       element(&#39;#link-2&#39;).click();       expect(input(&#39;value&#39;).val()).toEqual(&#39;2&#39;);       expect(element(&#39;#link-2&#39;).attr(&#39;href&#39;)).toBe(&quot;&quot;);     });     it(&#39;should execute ng-click and change url when ng-href specified&#39;, function() {       expect(element(&#39;#link-3&#39;).attr(&#39;href&#39;)).toBe(&quot;/123&quot;);       element(&#39;#link-3&#39;).click();       expect(browser().window().path()).toEqual(&#39;/123&#39;);     });     it(&#39;should execute ng-click but not reload when href empty string and name specified&#39;, function() {       element(&#39;#link-4&#39;).click();       expect(input(&#39;value&#39;).val()).toEqual(&#39;4&#39;);       expect(element(&#39;#link-4&#39;).attr(&#39;href&#39;)).toBe(&#39;&#39;);     });     it(&#39;should execute ng-click but not reload when no href but name specified&#39;, function() {       element(&#39;#link-5&#39;).click();       expect(input(&#39;value&#39;).val()).toEqual(&#39;5&#39;);       expect(element(&#39;#link-5&#39;).attr(&#39;href&#39;)).toBe(undefined);     });     it(&#39;should only change url when only ng-href&#39;, function() {       input(&#39;value&#39;).enter(&#39;6&#39;);       expect(element(&#39;#link-6&#39;).attr(&#39;href&#39;)).toBe(&#39;6&#39;);       element(&#39;#link-6&#39;).click();       expect(browser().location().url()).toEqual(&#39;/6&#39;);     });   &lt;/doc:scenario&gt; &lt;/doc:example&gt; 

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngSrc

@restrict A

@description Using Angular markup like {{hash}} in a src attribute doesn't work right: The browser will fetch from the URL with the literal text {{hash}} until Angular replaces the expression inside {{hash}}. The ngSrc directive solves this problem.

The buggy way to write it: <pre> <img src="http://www.gravatar.com/avatar/{{hash}}"/> </pre>

The correct way to write it: <pre> <img ng-src="http://www.gravatar.com/avatar/{{hash}}"/> </pre>

@element IMG

@param {template} ngSrc any string which can contain {{}} markup.

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngDisabled

@restrict A

@description

The following markup will make the button enabled on Chrome/Firefox but not on IE8 and older IEs: <pre> <div ng-init="scope = { isDisabled: false }"> <button disabled="{{scope.isDisabled}}">Disabled</button> </div> </pre>

The HTML specs do not require browsers to preserve the special attributes such as disabled. (The presence of them means true and absence means false) This prevents the angular compiler from correctly retrieving the binding expression. To solve this problem, we introduce the ngDisabled directive.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> Click me to toggle: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="checked"><br/> <button ng-model="button" ng-disabled="checked">Button</button> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should toggle button', function() { expect(element('.doc-example-live :button').prop('disabled')).toBeFalsy(); input('checked').check(); expect(element('.doc-example-live :button').prop('disabled')).toBeTruthy(); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

@element INPUT

@param {expression} ngDisabled Angular expression that will be evaluated.

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngChecked

@restrict A

@description The HTML specs do not require browsers to preserve the special attributes such as checked. (The presence of them means true and absence means false) This prevents the angular compiler from correctly retrieving the binding expression. To solve this problem, we introduce the ngChecked directive.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> Check me to check both: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="master"><br/> <input id="checkSlave" type="checkbox" ng-checked="master"> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should check both checkBoxes', function() { expect(element('.doc-example-live #checkSlave').prop('checked')).toBeFalsy(); input('master').check(); expect(element('.doc-example-live #checkSlave').prop('checked')).toBeTruthy(); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

@element INPUT

@param {expression} ngChecked Angular expression that will be evaluated.

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngMultiple

@restrict A

@description The HTML specs do not require browsers to preserve the special attributes such as multiple. (The presence of them means true and absence means false) This prevents the angular compiler from correctly retrieving the binding expression. To solve this problem, we introduce the ngMultiple directive.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> Check me check multiple: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="checked"><br/> <select id="select" ng-multiple="checked"> <option>Misko</option> <option>Igor</option> <option>Vojta</option> <option>Di</option> </select> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should toggle multiple', function() { expect(element('.doc-example-live #select').prop('multiple')).toBeFalsy(); input('checked').check(); expect(element('.doc-example-live #select').prop('multiple')).toBeTruthy(); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

@element SELECT

@param {expression} ngMultiple Angular expression that will be evaluated.

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngReadonly

@restrict A

@description The HTML specs do not require browsers to preserve the special attributes such as readonly. (The presence of them means true and absence means false) This prevents the angular compiler from correctly retrieving the binding expression. To solve this problem, we introduce the ngReadonly directive.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> Check me to make text readonly: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="checked"><br/> <input type="text" ng-readonly="checked" value="I'm Angular"/> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should toggle readonly attr', function() { expect(element('.doc-example-live :text').prop('readonly')).toBeFalsy(); input('checked').check(); expect(element('.doc-example-live :text').prop('readonly')).toBeTruthy(); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

@element INPUT

@param {string} expression Angular expression that will be evaluated.

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngSelected

@restrict A

@description The HTML specs do not require browsers to preserve the special attributes such as selected. (The presence of them means true and absence means false) This prevents the angular compiler from correctly retrieving the binding expression. To solve this problem, we introduced the ngSelected directive.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> Check me to select: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="selected"><br/> <select> <option>Hello!</option> <option id="greet" ng-selected="selected">Greetings!</option> </select> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should select Greetings!', function() { expect(element('.doc-example-live #greet').prop('selected')).toBeFalsy(); input('selected').check(); expect(element('.doc-example-live #greet').prop('selected')).toBeTruthy(); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

@element OPTION

@param {string} expression Angular expression that will be evaluated.

var ngAttributeAliasDirectives = {};

boolean attrs are evaluated

forEach(BOOLEAN_ATTR, function(propName, attrName) {
  var normalized = directiveNormalize('ng-' + attrName);
  ngAttributeAliasDirectives[normalized] = function() {
    return {
      priority: 100,
      compile: function() {
        return function(scope, element, attr) {
          scope.$watch(attr[normalized], function ngBooleanAttrWatchAction(value) {
            attr.$set(attrName, !!value);
          });
        };
      }
    };
  };
});

ng-src, ng-href are interpolated

forEach(['src', 'href'], function(attrName) {
  var normalized = directiveNormalize('ng-' + attrName);
  ngAttributeAliasDirectives[normalized] = function() {
    return {
      priority: 99, // it needs to run after the attributes are interpolated
      link: function(scope, element, attr) {
        attr.$observe(normalized, function(value) {
          if (!value)
             return;

          attr.$set(attrName, value);

on IE, if "ng:src" directive declaration is used and "src" attribute doesn't exist then calling element.setAttribute('src', 'foo') doesn't do anything, so we need to set the property as well to achieve the desired effect. we use attr[attrName] value since $set can sanitize the url.

          if (msie) element.prop(attrName, attr[attrName]);
        });
      }
    };
  };
});

var nullFormCtrl = {
  $addControl: noop,
  $removeControl: noop,
  $setValidity: noop,
  $setDirty: noop
};

@ngdoc object

@name ng.directive:form.FormController

@property {boolean} $pristine True if user has not interacted with the form yet.

@property {boolean} $dirty True if user has already interacted with the form.

@property {boolean} $valid True if all of the containing forms and controls are valid.

@property {boolean} $invalid True if at least one containing control or form is invalid.

@property {Object} $error Is an object hash, containing references to all invalid controls or forms, where:

  • keys are validation tokens (error names) — such as required, url or email),
  • values are arrays of controls or forms that are invalid with given error.

    @description FormController keeps track of all its controls and nested forms as well as state of them, such as being valid/invalid or dirty/pristine.

    Each {@link ng.directive:form form} directive creates an instance of FormController.

asks for $scope to fool the BC controller module

FormController.$inject = ['$element', '$attrs', '$scope'];
function FormController(element, attrs) {
  var form = this,
      parentForm = element.parent().controller('form') || nullFormCtrl,
      invalidCount = 0, // used to easily determine if we are valid
      errors = form.$error = {};

init state

  form.$name = attrs.name;
  form.$dirty = false;
  form.$pristine = true;
  form.$valid = true;
  form.$invalid = false;

  parentForm.$addControl(form);

Setup initial state of the control

  element.addClass(PRISTINE_CLASS);
  toggleValidCss(true);

convenience method for easy toggling of classes

  function toggleValidCss(isValid, validationErrorKey) {
    validationErrorKey = validationErrorKey ? '-' + snake_case(validationErrorKey, '-') : '';
    element.
      removeClass((isValid ? INVALID_CLASS : VALID_CLASS) + validationErrorKey).
      addClass((isValid ? VALID_CLASS : INVALID_CLASS) + validationErrorKey);
  }

  form.$addControl = function(control) {
    if (control.$name && !form.hasOwnProperty(control.$name)) {
      form[control.$name] = control;
    }
  };

  form.$removeControl = function(control) {
    if (control.$name && form[control.$name] === control) {
      delete form[control.$name];
    }
    forEach(errors, function(queue, validationToken) {
      form.$setValidity(validationToken, true, control);
    });
  };

  form.$setValidity = function(validationToken, isValid, control) {
    var queue = errors[validationToken];

    if (isValid) {
      if (queue) {
        arrayRemove(queue, control);
        if (!queue.length) {
          invalidCount--;
          if (!invalidCount) {
            toggleValidCss(isValid);
            form.$valid = true;
            form.$invalid = false;
          }
          errors[validationToken] = false;
          toggleValidCss(true, validationToken);
          parentForm.$setValidity(validationToken, true, form);
        }
      }

    } else {
      if (!invalidCount) {
        toggleValidCss(isValid);
      }
      if (queue) {
        if (includes(queue, control)) return;
      } else {
        errors[validationToken] = queue = [];
        invalidCount++;
        toggleValidCss(false, validationToken);
        parentForm.$setValidity(validationToken, false, form);
      }
      queue.push(control);

      form.$valid = false;
      form.$invalid = true;
    }
  };

  form.$setDirty = function() {
    element.removeClass(PRISTINE_CLASS).addClass(DIRTY_CLASS);
    form.$dirty = true;
    form.$pristine = false;
    parentForm.$setDirty();
  };

}

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngForm

@restrict EAC

@description Nestable alias of {@link ng.directive:form form} directive. HTML does not allow nesting of form elements. It is useful to nest forms, for example if the validity of a sub-group of controls needs to be determined.

@param {string=} name|ngForm Name of the form. If specified, the form controller will be published into related scope, under this name.

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:form

@restrict E

@description Directive that instantiates {@link ng.directive:form.FormController FormController}.

If name attribute is specified, the form controller is published onto the current scope under this name.

# Alias: {@link ng.directive:ngForm ngForm}

In angular forms can be nested. This means that the outer form is valid when all of the child forms are valid as well. However browsers do not allow nesting of &lt;form&gt; elements, for this reason angular provides {@link ng.directive:ngForm ngForm} alias which behaves identical to &lt;form&gt; but allows form nesting.

# CSS classes - ng-valid Is set if the form is valid. - ng-invalid Is set if the form is invalid. - ng-pristine Is set if the form is pristine. - ng-dirty Is set if the form is dirty.

# Submitting a form and preventing default action

Since the role of forms in client-side Angular applications is different than in classical roundtrip apps, it is desirable for the browser not to translate the form submission into a full page reload that sends the data to the server. Instead some javascript logic should be triggered to handle the form submission in application specific way.

For this reason, Angular prevents the default action (form submission to the server) unless the &lt;form&gt; element has an action attribute specified.

You can use one of the following two ways to specify what javascript method should be called when a form is submitted:

  • {@link ng.directive:ngSubmit ngSubmit} directive on the form element
  • {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick} directive on the first button or input field of type submit (input[type=submit])

    To prevent double execution of the handler, use only one of ngSubmit or ngClick directives. This is because of the following form submission rules coming from the html spec:

  • If a form has only one input field then hitting enter in this field triggers form submit (ngSubmit)

  • if a form has has 2+ input fields and no buttons or input[type=submit] then hitting enter doesn't trigger submit
  • if a form has one or more input fields and one or more buttons or input[type=submit] then hitting enter in any of the input fields will trigger the click handler on the first button or input[type=submit] (ngClick) and a submit handler on the enclosing form (ngSubmit)

    @param {string=} name Name of the form. If specified, the form controller will be published into related scope, under this name.

    @example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.userType = 'guest'; } </script> <form name="myForm" ng-controller="Ctrl"> userType: <input name="input" ng-model="userType" required> <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.input.$error.required">Required!</span><br> <tt>userType = {{userType}}</tt><br> <tt>myForm.input.$valid = {{myForm.input.$valid}}</tt><br> <tt>myForm.input.$error = {{myForm.input.$error}}</tt><br> <tt>myForm.$valid = {{myForm.$valid}}</tt><br> <tt>myForm.$error.required = {{!!myForm.$error.required}}</tt><br> </form> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should initialize to model', function() { expect(binding('userType')).toEqual('guest'); expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('true'); });

    it(&#39;should be invalid if empty&#39;, function() {  input(&#39;userType&#39;).enter(&#39;&#39;);  expect(binding(&#39;userType&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;&#39;);  expect(binding(&#39;myForm.input.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;false&#39;); }); 

    </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

var formDirectiveFactory = function(isNgForm) {
  return ['$timeout', function($timeout) {
    var formDirective = {
      name: 'form',
      restrict: 'E',
      controller: FormController,
      compile: function() {
        return {
          pre: function(scope, formElement, attr, controller) {
            if (!attr.action) {

we can't use jq events because if a form is destroyed during submission the default action is not prevented. see #1238

IE 9 is not affected because it doesn't fire a submit event and try to do a full page reload if the form was destroyed by submission of the form via a click handler on a button in the form. Looks like an IE9 specific bug.

              var preventDefaultListener = function(event) {
                event.preventDefault
                  ? event.preventDefault()
                  : event.returnValue = false; // IE
              };

              addEventListenerFn(formElement[0], 'submit', preventDefaultListener);

unregister the preventDefault listener so that we don't not leak memory but in a way that will achieve the prevention of the default action.

              formElement.bind('$destroy', function() {
                $timeout(function() {
                  removeEventListenerFn(formElement[0], 'submit', preventDefaultListener);
                }, 0, false);
              });
            }

            var parentFormCtrl = formElement.parent().controller('form'),
                alias = attr.name || attr.ngForm;

            if (alias) {
              scope[alias] = controller;
            }
            if (parentFormCtrl) {
              formElement.bind('$destroy', function() {
                parentFormCtrl.$removeControl(controller);
                if (alias) {
                  scope[alias] = undefined;
                }
                extend(controller, nullFormCtrl); //stop propagating child destruction handlers upwards
              });
            }
          }
        };
      }
    };

    return isNgForm ? extend(copy(formDirective), {restrict: 'EAC'}) : formDirective;
  }];
};

var formDirective = formDirectiveFactory();
var ngFormDirective = formDirectiveFactory(true);

var URL_REGEXP = /^(ftp|http|https):\/\/(\w+:{0,1}\w*@)?(\S+)(:[0-9]+)?(\/|\/([\w#!:.?+=&%@!\-\/]))?$/;
var EMAIL_REGEXP = /^[A-Za-z0-9._%+-]+@[A-Za-z0-9.-]+\.[A-Za-z]{2,4}$/;
var NUMBER_REGEXP = /^\s*(\-|\+)?(\d+|(\d*(\.\d*)))\s*$/;

var inputType = {

@ngdoc inputType

@name ng.directive:input.text

@description Standard HTML text input with angular data binding.

@param {string} ngModel Assignable angular expression to data-bind to.

@param {string=} name Property name of the form under which the control is published.

@param {string=} required Adds required validation error key if the value is not entered.

@param {string=} ngRequired Adds required attribute and required validation constraint to the element when the ngRequired expression evaluates to true. Use ngRequired instead of required when you want to data-bind to the required attribute.

@param {number=} ngMinlength Sets minlength validation error key if the value is shorter than minlength.

@param {number=} ngMaxlength Sets maxlength validation error key if the value is longer than maxlength.

@param {string=} ngPattern Sets pattern validation error key if the value does not match the RegExp pattern expression. Expected value is /regexp/ for inline patterns or regexp for patterns defined as scope expressions.

@param {string=} ngChange Angular expression to be executed when input changes due to user interaction with the input element.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.text = 'guest'; $scope.word = /^\w*$/; } </script> <form name="myForm" ng-controller="Ctrl"> Single word: <input type="text" name="input" ng-model="text" ng-pattern="word" required> <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.input.$error.required"> Required!</span> <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.input.$error.pattern"> Single word only!</span>

       &lt;tt&gt;text = {{text}}&lt;/tt&gt;&lt;br/&gt;        &lt;tt&gt;myForm.input.$valid = {{myForm.input.$valid}}&lt;/tt&gt;&lt;br/&gt;        &lt;tt&gt;myForm.input.$error = {{myForm.input.$error}}&lt;/tt&gt;&lt;br/&gt;        &lt;tt&gt;myForm.$valid = {{myForm.$valid}}&lt;/tt&gt;&lt;br/&gt;        &lt;tt&gt;myForm.$error.required = {{!!myForm.$error.required}}&lt;/tt&gt;&lt;br/&gt;       &lt;/form&gt;     &lt;/doc:source&gt;     &lt;doc:scenario&gt;       it(&#39;should initialize to model&#39;, function() {         expect(binding(&#39;text&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;guest&#39;);         expect(binding(&#39;myForm.input.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;true&#39;);       });       it(&#39;should be invalid if empty&#39;, function() {         input(&#39;text&#39;).enter(&#39;&#39;);         expect(binding(&#39;text&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;&#39;);         expect(binding(&#39;myForm.input.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;false&#39;);       });       it(&#39;should be invalid if multi word&#39;, function() {         input(&#39;text&#39;).enter(&#39;hello world&#39;);         expect(binding(&#39;myForm.input.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;false&#39;);       });     &lt;/doc:scenario&gt;   &lt;/doc:example&gt; 
  'text': textInputType,

@ngdoc inputType

@name ng.directive:input.number

@description Text input with number validation and transformation. Sets the number validation error if not a valid number.

@param {string} ngModel Assignable angular expression to data-bind to.

@param {string=} name Property name of the form under which the control is published.

@param {string=} min Sets the min validation error key if the value entered is less then min.

@param {string=} max Sets the max validation error key if the value entered is greater then min.

@param {string=} required Sets required validation error key if the value is not entered.

@param {string=} ngRequired Adds required attribute and required validation constraint to the element when the ngRequired expression evaluates to true. Use ngRequired instead of required when you want to data-bind to the required attribute.

@param {number=} ngMinlength Sets minlength validation error key if the value is shorter than minlength.

@param {number=} ngMaxlength Sets maxlength validation error key if the value is longer than maxlength.

@param {string=} ngPattern Sets pattern validation error key if the value does not match the RegExp pattern expression. Expected value is /regexp/ for inline patterns or regexp for patterns defined as scope expressions.

@param {string=} ngChange Angular expression to be executed when input changes due to user interaction with the input element.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.value = 12; } </script> <form name="myForm" ng-controller="Ctrl"> Number: <input type="number" name="input" ng-model="value" min="0" max="99" required> <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.list.$error.required"> Required!</span> <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.list.$error.number"> Not valid number!</span> <tt>value = {{value}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.input.$valid = {{myForm.input.$valid}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.input.$error = {{myForm.input.$error}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.$valid = {{myForm.$valid}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.$error.required = {{!!myForm.$error.required}}</tt><br/> </form> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should initialize to model', function() { expect(binding('value')).toEqual('12'); expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('true'); });

      it(&#39;should be invalid if empty&#39;, function() {        input(&#39;value&#39;).enter(&#39;&#39;);        expect(binding(&#39;value&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;&#39;);        expect(binding(&#39;myForm.input.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;false&#39;);       });       it(&#39;should be invalid if over max&#39;, function() {        input(&#39;value&#39;).enter(&#39;123&#39;);        expect(binding(&#39;value&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;&#39;);        expect(binding(&#39;myForm.input.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;false&#39;);       });     &lt;/doc:scenario&gt;   &lt;/doc:example&gt; 
  'number': numberInputType,

@ngdoc inputType

@name ng.directive:input.url

@description Text input with URL validation. Sets the url validation error key if the content is not a valid URL.

@param {string} ngModel Assignable angular expression to data-bind to.

@param {string=} name Property name of the form under which the control is published.

@param {string=} required Sets required validation error key if the value is not entered.

@param {string=} ngRequired Adds required attribute and required validation constraint to the element when the ngRequired expression evaluates to true. Use ngRequired instead of required when you want to data-bind to the required attribute.

@param {number=} ngMinlength Sets minlength validation error key if the value is shorter than minlength.

@param {number=} ngMaxlength Sets maxlength validation error key if the value is longer than maxlength.

@param {string=} ngPattern Sets pattern validation error key if the value does not match the RegExp pattern expression. Expected value is /regexp/ for inline patterns or regexp for patterns defined as scope expressions.

@param {string=} ngChange Angular expression to be executed when input changes due to user interaction with the input element.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.text = 'http://google.com'; } </script> <form name="myForm" ng-controller="Ctrl"> URL: <input type="url" name="input" ng-model="text" required> <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.input.$error.required"> Required!</span> <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.input.$error.url"> Not valid url!</span> <tt>text = {{text}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.input.$valid = {{myForm.input.$valid}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.input.$error = {{myForm.input.$error}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.$valid = {{myForm.$valid}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.$error.required = {{!!myForm.$error.required}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.$error.url = {{!!myForm.$error.url}}</tt><br/> </form> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should initialize to model', function() { expect(binding('text')).toEqual('http://google.com'); expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('true'); });

      it(&#39;should be invalid if empty&#39;, function() {         input(&#39;text&#39;).enter(&#39;&#39;);         expect(binding(&#39;text&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;&#39;);         expect(binding(&#39;myForm.input.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;false&#39;);       });       it(&#39;should be invalid if not url&#39;, function() {         input(&#39;text&#39;).enter(&#39;xxx&#39;);         expect(binding(&#39;myForm.input.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;false&#39;);       });     &lt;/doc:scenario&gt;   &lt;/doc:example&gt; 
  'url': urlInputType,

@ngdoc inputType

@name ng.directive:input.email

@description Text input with email validation. Sets the email validation error key if not a valid email address.

@param {string} ngModel Assignable angular expression to data-bind to.

@param {string=} name Property name of the form under which the control is published.

@param {string=} required Sets required validation error key if the value is not entered.

@param {string=} ngRequired Adds required attribute and required validation constraint to the element when the ngRequired expression evaluates to true. Use ngRequired instead of required when you want to data-bind to the required attribute.

@param {number=} ngMinlength Sets minlength validation error key if the value is shorter than minlength.

@param {number=} ngMaxlength Sets maxlength validation error key if the value is longer than maxlength.

@param {string=} ngPattern Sets pattern validation error key if the value does not match the RegExp pattern expression. Expected value is /regexp/ for inline patterns or regexp for patterns defined as scope expressions.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.text = 'me@example.com'; } </script> <form name="myForm" ng-controller="Ctrl"> Email: <input type="email" name="input" ng-model="text" required> <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.input.$error.required"> Required!</span> <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.input.$error.email"> Not valid email!</span> <tt>text = {{text}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.input.$valid = {{myForm.input.$valid}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.input.$error = {{myForm.input.$error}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.$valid = {{myForm.$valid}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.$error.required = {{!!myForm.$error.required}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.$error.email = {{!!myForm.$error.email}}</tt><br/> </form> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should initialize to model', function() { expect(binding('text')).toEqual('me@example.com'); expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('true'); });

      it(&#39;should be invalid if empty&#39;, function() {         input(&#39;text&#39;).enter(&#39;&#39;);         expect(binding(&#39;text&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;&#39;);         expect(binding(&#39;myForm.input.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;false&#39;);       });       it(&#39;should be invalid if not email&#39;, function() {         input(&#39;text&#39;).enter(&#39;xxx&#39;);         expect(binding(&#39;myForm.input.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;false&#39;);       });     &lt;/doc:scenario&gt;   &lt;/doc:example&gt; 
  'email': emailInputType,

@ngdoc inputType

@name ng.directive:input.radio

@description HTML radio button.

@param {string} ngModel Assignable angular expression to data-bind to.

@param {string} value The value to which the expression should be set when selected.

@param {string=} name Property name of the form under which the control is published.

@param {string=} ngChange Angular expression to be executed when input changes due to user interaction with the input element.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.color = 'blue'; } </script> <form name="myForm" ng-controller="Ctrl"> <input type="radio" ng-model="color" value="red"> Red <br/> <input type="radio" ng-model="color" value="green"> Green <br/> <input type="radio" ng-model="color" value="blue"> Blue <br/> <tt>color = {{color}}</tt><br/> </form> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should change state', function() { expect(binding('color')).toEqual('blue');

        input(&#39;color&#39;).select(&#39;red&#39;);         expect(binding(&#39;color&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;red&#39;);       });     &lt;/doc:scenario&gt;   &lt;/doc:example&gt; 
  'radio': radioInputType,

@ngdoc inputType

@name ng.directive:input.checkbox

@description HTML checkbox.

@param {string} ngModel Assignable angular expression to data-bind to.

@param {string=} name Property name of the form under which the control is published.

@param {string=} ngTrueValue The value to which the expression should be set when selected.

@param {string=} ngFalseValue The value to which the expression should be set when not selected.

@param {string=} ngChange Angular expression to be executed when input changes due to user interaction with the input element.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.value1 = true; $scope.value2 = 'YES' } </script> <form name="myForm" ng-controller="Ctrl"> Value1: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="value1"> <br/> Value2: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="value2" ng-true-value="YES" ng-false-value="NO"> <br/> <tt>value1 = {{value1}}</tt><br/> <tt>value2 = {{value2}}</tt><br/> </form> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should change state', function() { expect(binding('value1')).toEqual('true'); expect(binding('value2')).toEqual('YES');

        input(&#39;value1&#39;).check();         input(&#39;value2&#39;).check();         expect(binding(&#39;value1&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;false&#39;);         expect(binding(&#39;value2&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;NO&#39;);       });     &lt;/doc:scenario&gt;   &lt;/doc:example&gt; 
  'checkbox': checkboxInputType,

  'hidden': noop,
  'button': noop,
  'submit': noop,
  'reset': noop
};


function isEmpty(value) {
  return isUndefined(value) || value === '' || value === null || value !== value;
}


function textInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl, $sniffer, $browser) {

  var listener = function() {
    var value = trim(element.val());

    if (ctrl.$viewValue !== value) {
      scope.$apply(function() {
        ctrl.$setViewValue(value);
      });
    }
  };

if the browser does support "input" event, we are fine - except on IE9 which doesn't fire the input event on backspace, delete or cut

  if ($sniffer.hasEvent('input')) {
    element.bind('input', listener);
  } else {
    var timeout;

    element.bind('keydown', function(event) {
      var key = event.keyCode;

ignore command modifiers arrows

      if (key === 91 || (15 < key && key < 19) || (37 <= key && key <= 40)) return;

      if (!timeout) {
        timeout = $browser.defer(function() {
          listener();
          timeout = null;
        });
      }
    });

if user paste into input using mouse, we need "change" event to catch it

    element.bind('change', listener);
  }


  ctrl.$render = function() {
    element.val(isEmpty(ctrl.$viewValue) ? '' : ctrl.$viewValue);
  };

pattern validator

  var pattern = attr.ngPattern,
      patternValidator;

  var validate = function(regexp, value) {
    if (isEmpty(value) || regexp.test(value)) {
      ctrl.$setValidity('pattern', true);
      return value;
    } else {
      ctrl.$setValidity('pattern', false);
      return undefined;
    }
  };

  if (pattern) {
    if (pattern.match(/^\/(.*)\/$/)) {
      pattern = new RegExp(pattern.substr(1, pattern.length - 2));
      patternValidator = function(value) {
        return validate(pattern, value)
      };
    } else {
      patternValidator = function(value) {
        var patternObj = scope.$eval(pattern);

        if (!patternObj || !patternObj.test) {
          throw new Error('Expected ' + pattern + ' to be a RegExp but was ' + patternObj);
        }
        return validate(patternObj, value);
      };
    }

    ctrl.$formatters.push(patternValidator);
    ctrl.$parsers.push(patternValidator);
  }

min length validator

  if (attr.ngMinlength) {
    var minlength = int(attr.ngMinlength);
    var minLengthValidator = function(value) {
      if (!isEmpty(value) && value.length < minlength) {
        ctrl.$setValidity('minlength', false);
        return undefined;
      } else {
        ctrl.$setValidity('minlength', true);
        return value;
      }
    };

    ctrl.$parsers.push(minLengthValidator);
    ctrl.$formatters.push(minLengthValidator);
  }

max length validator

  if (attr.ngMaxlength) {
    var maxlength = int(attr.ngMaxlength);
    var maxLengthValidator = function(value) {
      if (!isEmpty(value) && value.length > maxlength) {
        ctrl.$setValidity('maxlength', false);
        return undefined;
      } else {
        ctrl.$setValidity('maxlength', true);
        return value;
      }
    };

    ctrl.$parsers.push(maxLengthValidator);
    ctrl.$formatters.push(maxLengthValidator);
  }
}

function numberInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl, $sniffer, $browser) {
  textInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl, $sniffer, $browser);

  ctrl.$parsers.push(function(value) {
    var empty = isEmpty(value);
    if (empty || NUMBER_REGEXP.test(value)) {
      ctrl.$setValidity('number', true);
      return value === '' ? null : (empty ? value : parseFloat(value));
    } else {
      ctrl.$setValidity('number', false);
      return undefined;
    }
  });

  ctrl.$formatters.push(function(value) {
    return isEmpty(value) ? '' : '' + value;
  });

  if (attr.min) {
    var min = parseFloat(attr.min);
    var minValidator = function(value) {
      if (!isEmpty(value) && value < min) {
        ctrl.$setValidity('min', false);
        return undefined;
      } else {
        ctrl.$setValidity('min', true);
        return value;
      }
    };

    ctrl.$parsers.push(minValidator);
    ctrl.$formatters.push(minValidator);
  }

  if (attr.max) {
    var max = parseFloat(attr.max);
    var maxValidator = function(value) {
      if (!isEmpty(value) && value > max) {
        ctrl.$setValidity('max', false);
        return undefined;
      } else {
        ctrl.$setValidity('max', true);
        return value;
      }
    };

    ctrl.$parsers.push(maxValidator);
    ctrl.$formatters.push(maxValidator);
  }

  ctrl.$formatters.push(function(value) {

    if (isEmpty(value) || isNumber(value)) {
      ctrl.$setValidity('number', true);
      return value;
    } else {
      ctrl.$setValidity('number', false);
      return undefined;
    }
  });
}

function urlInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl, $sniffer, $browser) {
  textInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl, $sniffer, $browser);

  var urlValidator = function(value) {
    if (isEmpty(value) || URL_REGEXP.test(value)) {
      ctrl.$setValidity('url', true);
      return value;
    } else {
      ctrl.$setValidity('url', false);
      return undefined;
    }
  };

  ctrl.$formatters.push(urlValidator);
  ctrl.$parsers.push(urlValidator);
}

function emailInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl, $sniffer, $browser) {
  textInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl, $sniffer, $browser);

  var emailValidator = function(value) {
    if (isEmpty(value) || EMAIL_REGEXP.test(value)) {
      ctrl.$setValidity('email', true);
      return value;
    } else {
      ctrl.$setValidity('email', false);
      return undefined;
    }
  };

  ctrl.$formatters.push(emailValidator);
  ctrl.$parsers.push(emailValidator);
}

function radioInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl) {

make the name unique, if not defined

  if (isUndefined(attr.name)) {
    element.attr('name', nextUid());
  }

  element.bind('click', function() {
    if (element[0].checked) {
      scope.$apply(function() {
        ctrl.$setViewValue(attr.value);
      });
    }
  });

  ctrl.$render = function() {
    var value = attr.value;
    element[0].checked = (value == ctrl.$viewValue);
  };

  attr.$observe('value', ctrl.$render);
}

function checkboxInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl) {
  var trueValue = attr.ngTrueValue,
      falseValue = attr.ngFalseValue;

  if (!isString(trueValue)) trueValue = true;
  if (!isString(falseValue)) falseValue = false;

  element.bind('click', function() {
    scope.$apply(function() {
      ctrl.$setViewValue(element[0].checked);
    });
  });

  ctrl.$render = function() {
    element[0].checked = ctrl.$viewValue;
  };

  ctrl.$formatters.push(function(value) {
    return value === trueValue;
  });

  ctrl.$parsers.push(function(value) {
    return value ? trueValue : falseValue;
  });
}

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:textarea

@restrict E

@description HTML textarea element control with angular data-binding. The data-binding and validation properties of this element are exactly the same as those of the {@link ng.directive:input input element}.

@param {string} ngModel Assignable angular expression to data-bind to.

@param {string=} name Property name of the form under which the control is published.

@param {string=} required Sets required validation error key if the value is not entered.

@param {string=} ngRequired Adds required attribute and required validation constraint to the element when the ngRequired expression evaluates to true. Use ngRequired instead of required when you want to data-bind to the required attribute.

@param {number=} ngMinlength Sets minlength validation error key if the value is shorter than minlength.

@param {number=} ngMaxlength Sets maxlength validation error key if the value is longer than maxlength.

@param {string=} ngPattern Sets pattern validation error key if the value does not match the RegExp pattern expression. Expected value is /regexp/ for inline patterns or regexp for patterns defined as scope expressions.

@param {string=} ngChange Angular expression to be executed when input changes due to user interaction with the input element.

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:input

@restrict E

@description HTML input element control with angular data-binding. Input control follows HTML5 input types and polyfills the HTML5 validation behavior for older browsers.

@param {string} ngModel Assignable angular expression to data-bind to.

@param {string=} name Property name of the form under which the control is published.

@param {string=} required Sets required validation error key if the value is not entered.

@param {boolean=} ngRequired Sets required attribute if set to true

@param {number=} ngMinlength Sets minlength validation error key if the value is shorter than minlength.

@param {number=} ngMaxlength Sets maxlength validation error key if the value is longer than maxlength.

@param {string=} ngPattern Sets pattern validation error key if the value does not match the RegExp pattern expression. Expected value is /regexp/ for inline patterns or regexp for patterns defined as scope expressions.

@param {string=} ngChange Angular expression to be executed when input changes due to user interaction with the input element.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.user = {name: 'guest', last: 'visitor'}; } </script> <div ng-controller="Ctrl"> <form name="myForm"> User name: <input type="text" name="userName" ng-model="user.name" required> <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.userName.$error.required"> Required!</span><br> Last name: <input type="text" name="lastName" ng-model="user.last" ng-minlength="3" ng-maxlength="10"> <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.lastName.$error.minlength"> Too short!</span> <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.lastName.$error.maxlength"> Too long!</span><br> </form> <hr> <tt>user = {{user}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.userName.$valid = {{myForm.userName.$valid}}</tt><br> <tt>myForm.userName.$error = {{myForm.userName.$error}}</tt><br> <tt>myForm.lastName.$valid = {{myForm.lastName.$valid}}</tt><br> <tt>myForm.userName.$error = {{myForm.lastName.$error}}</tt><br> <tt>myForm.$valid = {{myForm.$valid}}</tt><br> <tt>myForm.$error.required = {{!!myForm.$error.required}}</tt><br> <tt>myForm.$error.minlength = {{!!myForm.$error.minlength}}</tt><br> <tt>myForm.$error.maxlength = {{!!myForm.$error.maxlength}}</tt><br> </div> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should initialize to model', function() { expect(binding('user')).toEqual('{"name":"guest","last":"visitor"}'); expect(binding('myForm.userName.$valid')).toEqual('true'); expect(binding('myForm.$valid')).toEqual('true'); });

    it(&#39;should be invalid if empty when required&#39;, function() {       input(&#39;user.name&#39;).enter(&#39;&#39;);       expect(binding(&#39;user&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;{&quot;last&quot;:&quot;visitor&quot;}&#39;);       expect(binding(&#39;myForm.userName.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;false&#39;);       expect(binding(&#39;myForm.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;false&#39;);     });     it(&#39;should be valid if empty when min length is set&#39;, function() {       input(&#39;user.last&#39;).enter(&#39;&#39;);       expect(binding(&#39;user&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;{&quot;name&quot;:&quot;guest&quot;,&quot;last&quot;:&quot;&quot;}&#39;);       expect(binding(&#39;myForm.lastName.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;true&#39;);       expect(binding(&#39;myForm.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;true&#39;);     });     it(&#39;should be invalid if less than required min length&#39;, function() {       input(&#39;user.last&#39;).enter(&#39;xx&#39;);       expect(binding(&#39;user&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;{&quot;name&quot;:&quot;guest&quot;}&#39;);       expect(binding(&#39;myForm.lastName.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;false&#39;);       expect(binding(&#39;myForm.lastName.$error&#39;)).toMatch(/minlength/);       expect(binding(&#39;myForm.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;false&#39;);     });     it(&#39;should be invalid if longer than max length&#39;, function() {       input(&#39;user.last&#39;).enter(&#39;some ridiculously long name&#39;);       expect(binding(&#39;user&#39;))         .toEqual(&#39;{&quot;name&quot;:&quot;guest&quot;}&#39;);       expect(binding(&#39;myForm.lastName.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;false&#39;);       expect(binding(&#39;myForm.lastName.$error&#39;)).toMatch(/maxlength/);       expect(binding(&#39;myForm.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;false&#39;);     });   &lt;/doc:scenario&gt; &lt;/doc:example&gt; 
var inputDirective = ['$browser', '$sniffer', function($browser, $sniffer) {
  return {
    restrict: 'E',
    require: '?ngModel',
    link: function(scope, element, attr, ctrl) {
      if (ctrl) {
        (inputType[lowercase(attr.type)] || inputType.text)(scope, element, attr, ctrl, $sniffer,
                                                            $browser);
      }
    }
  };
}];

var VALID_CLASS = 'ng-valid',
    INVALID_CLASS = 'ng-invalid',
    PRISTINE_CLASS = 'ng-pristine',
    DIRTY_CLASS = 'ng-dirty';

@ngdoc object

@name ng.directive:ngModel.NgModelController

@property {string} $viewValue Actual string value in the view.

@property {*} $modelValue The value in the model, that the control is bound to.

@property {Array.<Function>} $parsers Whenever the control reads value from the DOM, it executes all of these functions to sanitize / convert the value as well as validate.

@property {Array.<Function>} $formatters Whenever the model value changes, it executes all of these functions to convert the value as well as validate.

@property {Object} $error An bject hash with all errors as keys.

@property {boolean} $pristine True if user has not interacted with the control yet.

@property {boolean} $dirty True if user has already interacted with the control.

@property {boolean} $valid True if there is no error.

@property {boolean} $invalid True if at least one error on the control.

@description

NgModelController provides API for the ng-model directive. The controller contains services for data-binding, validation, CSS update, value formatting and parsing. It specifically does not contain any logic which deals with DOM rendering or listening to DOM events. The NgModelController is meant to be extended by other directives where, the directive provides DOM manipulation and the NgModelController provides the data-binding.

This example shows how to use NgModelController with a custom control to achieve data-binding. Notice how different directives (contenteditable, ng-model, and required) collaborate together to achieve the desired result.

<example module="customControl"> <file name="style.css"> [contenteditable] { border: 1px solid black; background-color: white; min-height: 20px; }

  .ng-invalid {     border: 1px solid red;   } &lt;/file&gt; &lt;file name=&quot;script.js&quot;&gt;   angular.module(&#39;customControl&#39;, []).     directive(&#39;contenteditable&#39;, function() {       return {         restrict: &#39;A&#39;, // only activate on element attribute         require: &#39;?ngModel&#39;, // get a hold of NgModelController         link: function(scope, element, attrs, ngModel) {           if(!ngModel) return; // do nothing if no ng-model           // Specify how UI should be updated           ngModel.$render = function() {             element.html(ngModel.$viewValue || &#39;&#39;);           };           // Listen for change events to enable binding           element.bind(&#39;blur keyup change&#39;, function() {             scope.$apply(read);           });           read(); // initialize           // Write data to the model           function read() {             ngModel.$setViewValue(element.html());           }         }       };     }); &lt;/file&gt; &lt;file name=&quot;index.html&quot;&gt;   &lt;form name=&quot;myForm&quot;&gt;    &lt;div contenteditable         name=&quot;myWidget&quot; ng-model=&quot;userContent&quot;         required&gt;Change me!&lt;/div&gt;     &lt;span ng-show=&quot;myForm.myWidget.$error.required&quot;&gt;Required!&lt;/span&gt;    &lt;hr&gt;    &lt;textarea ng-model=&quot;userContent&quot;&gt;&lt;/textarea&gt;   &lt;/form&gt; &lt;/file&gt; &lt;file name=&quot;scenario.js&quot;&gt;   it(&#39;should data-bind and become invalid&#39;, function() {     var contentEditable = element(&#39;[contenteditable]&#39;);     expect(contentEditable.text()).toEqual(&#39;Change me!&#39;);     input(&#39;userContent&#39;).enter(&#39;&#39;);     expect(contentEditable.text()).toEqual(&#39;&#39;);     expect(contentEditable.prop(&#39;className&#39;)).toMatch(/ng-invalid-required/);   }); &lt;/file&gt; 

</example>

var NgModelController = ['$scope', '$exceptionHandler', '$attrs', '$element', '$parse',
    function($scope, $exceptionHandler, $attr, $element, $parse) {
  this.$viewValue = Number.NaN;
  this.$modelValue = Number.NaN;
  this.$parsers = [];
  this.$formatters = [];
  this.$viewChangeListeners = [];
  this.$pristine = true;
  this.$dirty = false;
  this.$valid = true;
  this.$invalid = false;
  this.$name = $attr.name;

  var ngModelGet = $parse($attr.ngModel),
      ngModelSet = ngModelGet.assign;

  if (!ngModelSet) {
    throw Error(NON_ASSIGNABLE_MODEL_EXPRESSION + $attr.ngModel +
        ' (' + startingTag($element) + ')');
  }

@ngdoc function

@name ng.directive:ngModel.NgModelController#$render

@methodOf ng.directive:ngModel.NgModelController

@description Called when the view needs to be updated. It is expected that the user of the ng-model directive will implement this method.

  this.$render = noop;

  var parentForm = $element.inheritedData('$formController') || nullFormCtrl,
      invalidCount = 0, // used to easily determine if we are valid
      $error = this.$error = {}; // keep invalid keys here

Setup initial state of the control

  $element.addClass(PRISTINE_CLASS);
  toggleValidCss(true);

convenience method for easy toggling of classes

  function toggleValidCss(isValid, validationErrorKey) {
    validationErrorKey = validationErrorKey ? '-' + snake_case(validationErrorKey, '-') : '';
    $element.
      removeClass((isValid ? INVALID_CLASS : VALID_CLASS) + validationErrorKey).
      addClass((isValid ? VALID_CLASS : INVALID_CLASS) + validationErrorKey);
  }

@ngdoc function

@name ng.directive:ngModel.NgModelController#$setValidity

@methodOf ng.directive:ngModel.NgModelController

@description Change the validity state, and notifies the form when the control changes validity. (i.e. it does not notify form if given validator is already marked as invalid).

This method should be called by validators - i.e. the parser or formatter functions.

@param {string} validationErrorKey Name of the validator. the validationErrorKey will assign to $error[validationErrorKey]=isValid so that it is available for data-binding. The validationErrorKey should be in camelCase and will get converted into dash-case for class name. Example: myError will result in ng-valid-my-error and ng-invalid-my-error class and can be bound to as {{someForm.someControl.$error.myError}} .

@param {boolean} isValid Whether the current state is valid (true) or invalid (false).

  this.$setValidity = function(validationErrorKey, isValid) {
    if ($error[validationErrorKey] === !isValid) return;

    if (isValid) {
      if ($error[validationErrorKey]) invalidCount--;
      if (!invalidCount) {
        toggleValidCss(true);
        this.$valid = true;
        this.$invalid = false;
      }
    } else {
      toggleValidCss(false);
      this.$invalid = true;
      this.$valid = false;
      invalidCount++;
    }

    $error[validationErrorKey] = !isValid;
    toggleValidCss(isValid, validationErrorKey);

    parentForm.$setValidity(validationErrorKey, isValid, this);
  };

@ngdoc function

@name ng.directive:ngModel.NgModelController#$setViewValue

@methodOf ng.directive:ngModel.NgModelController

@description Read a value from view.

This method should be called from within a DOM event handler. For example {@link ng.directive:input input} or {@link ng.directive:select select} directives call it.

It internally calls all formatters and if resulted value is valid, updates the model and calls all registered change listeners.

@param {string} value Value from the view.

  this.$setViewValue = function(value) {
    this.$viewValue = value;

change to dirty

    if (this.$pristine) {
      this.$dirty = true;
      this.$pristine = false;
      $element.removeClass(PRISTINE_CLASS).addClass(DIRTY_CLASS);
      parentForm.$setDirty();
    }

    forEach(this.$parsers, function(fn) {
      value = fn(value);
    });

    if (this.$modelValue !== value) {
      this.$modelValue = value;
      ngModelSet($scope, value);
      forEach(this.$viewChangeListeners, function(listener) {
        try {
          listener();
        } catch(e) {
          $exceptionHandler(e);
        }
      })
    }
  };

model -> value

  var ctrl = this;

  $scope.$watch(function ngModelWatch() {
    var value = ngModelGet($scope);

if scope model value and ngModel value are out of sync

    if (ctrl.$modelValue !== value) {

      var formatters = ctrl.$formatters,
          idx = formatters.length;

      ctrl.$modelValue = value;
      while(idx--) {
        value = formatters[idx](value);
      }

      if (ctrl.$viewValue !== value) {
        ctrl.$viewValue = value;
        ctrl.$render();
      }
    }
  });
}];

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngModel

@element input

@description Is directive that tells Angular to do two-way data binding. It works together with input, select, textarea. You can easily write your own directives to use ngModel as well.

ngModel is responsible for:

  • binding the view into the model, which other directives such as input, textarea or select require,
  • providing validation behavior (i.e. required, number, email, url),
  • keeping state of the control (valid/invalid, dirty/pristine, validation errors),
  • setting related css class onto the element (ng-valid, ng-invalid, ng-dirty, ng-pristine),
  • register the control with parent {@link ng.directive:form form}.

    For basic examples, how to use ngModel, see:

    • {@link ng.directive:input input}
    • {@link ng.directive:input.text text}
    • {@link ng.directive:input.checkbox checkbox}
    • {@link ng.directive:input.radio radio}
    • {@link ng.directive:input.number number}
    • {@link ng.directive:input.email email}
    • {@link ng.directive:input.url url}
    • {@link ng.directive:select select}
    • {@link ng.directive:textarea textarea}
var ngModelDirective = function() {
  return {
    require: ['ngModel', '^?form'],
    controller: NgModelController,
    link: function(scope, element, attr, ctrls) {

notify others, especially parent forms

      var modelCtrl = ctrls[0],
          formCtrl = ctrls[1] || nullFormCtrl;

      formCtrl.$addControl(modelCtrl);

      element.bind('$destroy', function() {
        formCtrl.$removeControl(modelCtrl);
      });
    }
  };
};

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngChange

@restrict E

@description Evaluate given expression when user changes the input. The expression is not evaluated when the value change is coming from the model.

Note, this directive requires ngModel to be present.

@element input

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Controller($scope) { $scope.counter = 0; $scope.change = function() { $scope.counter++; }; } </script> <div ng-controller="Controller"> <input type="checkbox" ng-model="confirmed" ng-change="change()" id="ng-change-example1" /> <input type="checkbox" ng-model="confirmed" id="ng-change-example2" /> <label for="ng-change-example2">Confirmed</label><br /> debug = {{confirmed}}<br /> counter = {{counter}} </div> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should evaluate the expression if changing from view', function() { expect(binding('counter')).toEqual('0'); element('#ng-change-example1').click(); expect(binding('counter')).toEqual('1'); expect(binding('confirmed')).toEqual('true'); });

 it(&#39;should not evaluate the expression if changing from model&#39;, function() {    element(&#39;#ng-change-example2&#39;).click();    expect(binding(&#39;counter&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;0&#39;);    expect(binding(&#39;confirmed&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;true&#39;);  }); 

</doc:scenario> </doc:example>

var ngChangeDirective = valueFn({
  require: 'ngModel',
  link: function(scope, element, attr, ctrl) {
    ctrl.$viewChangeListeners.push(function() {
      scope.$eval(attr.ngChange);
    });
  }
});


var requiredDirective = function() {
  return {
    require: '?ngModel',
    link: function(scope, elm, attr, ctrl) {
      if (!ctrl) return;
      attr.required = true; // force truthy in case we are on non input element

      var validator = function(value) {
        if (attr.required && (isEmpty(value) || value === false)) {
          ctrl.$setValidity('required', false);
          return;
        } else {
          ctrl.$setValidity('required', true);
          return value;
        }
      };

      ctrl.$formatters.push(validator);
      ctrl.$parsers.unshift(validator);

      attr.$observe('required', function() {
        validator(ctrl.$viewValue);
      });
    }
  };
};

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngList

@description Text input that converts between comma-separated string into an array of strings.

@element input

@param {string=} ngList optional delimiter that should be used to split the value. If specified in form /something/ then the value will be converted into a regular expression.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.names = ['igor', 'misko', 'vojta']; } </script> <form name="myForm" ng-controller="Ctrl"> List: <input name="namesInput" ng-model="names" ng-list required> <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.list.$error.required"> Required!</span> <tt>names = {{names}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.namesInput.$valid = {{myForm.namesInput.$valid}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.namesInput.$error = {{myForm.namesInput.$error}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.$valid = {{myForm.$valid}}</tt><br/> <tt>myForm.$error.required = {{!!myForm.$error.required}}</tt><br/> </form> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should initialize to model', function() { expect(binding('names')).toEqual('["igor","misko","vojta"]'); expect(binding('myForm.namesInput.$valid')).toEqual('true'); });

    it(&#39;should be invalid if empty&#39;, function() {       input(&#39;names&#39;).enter(&#39;&#39;);       expect(binding(&#39;names&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;[]&#39;);       expect(binding(&#39;myForm.namesInput.$valid&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;false&#39;);     });   &lt;/doc:scenario&gt; &lt;/doc:example&gt; 
var ngListDirective = function() {
  return {
    require: 'ngModel',
    link: function(scope, element, attr, ctrl) {
      var match = /\/(.*)\//.exec(attr.ngList),
          separator = match && new RegExp(match[1]) || attr.ngList || ',';

      var parse = function(viewValue) {
        var list = [];

        if (viewValue) {
          forEach(viewValue.split(separator), function(value) {
            if (value) list.push(trim(value));
          });
        }

        return list;
      };

      ctrl.$parsers.push(parse);
      ctrl.$formatters.push(function(value) {
        if (isArray(value)) {
          return value.join(', ');
        }

        return undefined;
      });
    }
  };
};


var CONSTANT_VALUE_REGEXP = /^(true|false|\d+)$/;

var ngValueDirective = function() {
  return {
    priority: 100,
    compile: function(tpl, tplAttr) {
      if (CONSTANT_VALUE_REGEXP.test(tplAttr.ngValue)) {
        return function(scope, elm, attr) {
          attr.$set('value', scope.$eval(attr.ngValue));
        };
      } else {
        return function(scope, elm, attr) {
          scope.$watch(attr.ngValue, function valueWatchAction(value) {
            attr.$set('value', value, false);
          });
        };
      }
    }
  };
};

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngBind

@description The ngBind attribute tells Angular to replace the text content of the specified HTML element with the value of a given expression, and to update the text content when the value of that expression changes.

Typically, you don't use ngBind directly, but instead you use the double curly markup like {{ expression }} which is similar but less verbose.

Once scenario in which the use of ngBind is prefered over {{ expression }} binding is when it's desirable to put bindings into template that is momentarily displayed by the browser in its raw state before Angular compiles it. Since ngBind is an element attribute, it makes the bindings invisible to the user while the page is loading.

An alternative solution to this problem would be using the {@link ng.directive:ngCloak ngCloak} directive.

@element ANY

@param {expression} ngBind {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate.

@example Enter a name in the Live Preview text box; the greeting below the text box changes instantly. <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.name = 'Whirled'; } </script> <div ng-controller="Ctrl"> Enter name: <input type="text" ng-model="name"><br> Hello <span ng-bind="name"></span>! </div> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should check ng-bind', function() { expect(using('.doc-example-live').binding('name')).toBe('Whirled'); using('.doc-example-live').input('name').enter('world'); expect(using('.doc-example-live').binding('name')).toBe('world'); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

var ngBindDirective = ngDirective(function(scope, element, attr) {
  element.addClass('ng-binding').data('$binding', attr.ngBind);
  scope.$watch(attr.ngBind, function ngBindWatchAction(value) {
    element.text(value == undefined ? '' : value);
  });
});

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngBindTemplate

@description The ngBindTemplate directive specifies that the element text should be replaced with the template in ngBindTemplate. Unlike ngBind the ngBindTemplate can contain multiple {{ }} expressions. (This is required since some HTML elements can not have SPAN elements such as TITLE, or OPTION to name a few.)

@element ANY

@param {string} ngBindTemplate template of form <tt>{{</tt> <tt>expression</tt> <tt>}}</tt> to eval.

@example Try it here: enter text in text box and watch the greeting change. <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.salutation = 'Hello'; $scope.name = 'World'; } </script> <div ng-controller="Ctrl"> Salutation: <input type="text" ng-model="salutation"><br> Name: <input type="text" ng-model="name"><br> <pre ng-bind-template="{{salutation}} {{name}}!"></pre> </div> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should check ng-bind', function() { expect(using('.doc-example-live').binding('salutation')). toBe('Hello'); expect(using('.doc-example-live').binding('name')). toBe('World'); using('.doc-example-live').input('salutation').enter('Greetings'); using('.doc-example-live').input('name').enter('user'); expect(using('.doc-example-live').binding('salutation')). toBe('Greetings'); expect(using('.doc-example-live').binding('name')). toBe('user'); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

var ngBindTemplateDirective = ['$interpolate', function($interpolate) {
  return function(scope, element, attr) {

TODO: move this to scenario runner

    var interpolateFn = $interpolate(element.attr(attr.$attr.ngBindTemplate));
    element.addClass('ng-binding').data('$binding', interpolateFn);
    attr.$observe('ngBindTemplate', function(value) {
      element.text(value);
    });
  }
}];

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngBindHtmlUnsafe

@description Creates a binding that will innerHTML the result of evaluating the expression into the current element. The innerHTML-ed content will not be sanitized! You should use this directive only if {@link ngSanitize.directive:ngBindHtml ngBindHtml} directive is too restrictive and when you absolutely trust the source of the content you are binding to.

See {@link ngSanitize.$sanitize $sanitize} docs for examples.

@element ANY

@param {expression} ngBindHtmlUnsafe {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate.

var ngBindHtmlUnsafeDirective = [function() {
  return function(scope, element, attr) {
    element.addClass('ng-binding').data('$binding', attr.ngBindHtmlUnsafe);
    scope.$watch(attr.ngBindHtmlUnsafe, function ngBindHtmlUnsafeWatchAction(value) {
      element.html(value || '');
    });
  };
}];

function classDirective(name, selector) {
  name = 'ngClass' + name;
  return ngDirective(function(scope, element, attr) {
    var oldVal = undefined;

    scope.$watch(attr[name], ngClassWatchAction, true);

    attr.$observe('class', function(value) {
      var ngClass = scope.$eval(attr[name]);
      ngClassWatchAction(ngClass, ngClass);
    });


    if (name !== 'ngClass') {
      scope.$watch('$index', function($index, old$index) {
        var mod = $index % 2;
        if (mod !== old$index % 2) {
          if (mod == selector) {
            addClass(scope.$eval(attr[name]));
          } else {
            removeClass(scope.$eval(attr[name]));
          }
        }
      });
    }


    function ngClassWatchAction(newVal) {
      if (selector === true || scope.$index % 2 === selector) {
        if (oldVal && (newVal !== oldVal)) {
          removeClass(oldVal);
        }
        addClass(newVal);
      }
      oldVal = newVal;
    }


    function removeClass(classVal) {
      if (isObject(classVal) && !isArray(classVal)) {
        classVal = map(classVal, function(v, k) { if (v) return k });
      }
      element.removeClass(isArray(classVal) ? classVal.join(' ') : classVal);
    }


    function addClass(classVal) {
      if (isObject(classVal) && !isArray(classVal)) {
        classVal = map(classVal, function(v, k) { if (v) return k });
      }
      if (classVal) {
        element.addClass(isArray(classVal) ? classVal.join(' ') : classVal);
      }
    }
  });
}

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngClass

@description The ngClass allows you to set CSS class on HTML element dynamically by databinding an expression that represents all classes to be added.

The directive won't add duplicate classes if a particular class was already set.

When the expression changes, the previously added classes are removed and only then the new classes are added.

@element ANY

@param {expression} ngClass {@link guide/expression Expression} to eval. The result of the evaluation can be a string representing space delimited class names, an array, or a map of class names to boolean values.

@example <example> <file name="index.html"> <input type="button" value="set" ng-click="myVar='my-class'"> <input type="button" value="clear" ng-click="myVar=''"> <br> <span ng-class="myVar">Sample Text</span> </file> <file name="style.css"> .my-class { color: red; } </file> <file name="scenario.js"> it('should check ng-class', function() { expect(element('.doc-example-live span').prop('className')).not(). toMatch(/my-class/);

     using(&#39;.doc-example-live&#39;).element(&#39;:button:first&#39;).click();      expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live span&#39;).prop(&#39;className&#39;)).        toMatch(/my-class/);      using(&#39;.doc-example-live&#39;).element(&#39;:button:last&#39;).click();      expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live span&#39;).prop(&#39;className&#39;)).not().        toMatch(/my-class/);    });  &lt;/file&gt; 

</example>

var ngClassDirective = classDirective('', true);

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngClassOdd

@description The ngClassOdd and ngClassEven directives work exactly as {@link ng.directive:ngClass ngClass}, except it works in conjunction with ngRepeat and takes affect only on odd (even) rows.

This directive can be applied only within a scope of an {@link ng.directive:ngRepeat ngRepeat}.

@element ANY

@param {expression} ngClassOdd {@link guide/expression Expression} to eval. The result of the evaluation can be a string representing space delimited class names or an array.

@example <example> <file name="index.html"> <ol ng-init="names=['John', 'Mary', 'Cate', 'Suz']"> <li ng-repeat="name in names"> <span ng-class-odd="'odd'" ng-class-even="'even'"> {{name}} </span> </li> </ol> </file> <file name="style.css"> .odd { color: red; } .even { color: blue; } </file> <file name="scenario.js"> it('should check ng-class-odd and ng-class-even', function() { expect(element('.doc-example-live li:first span').prop('className')). toMatch(/odd/); expect(element('.doc-example-live li:last span').prop('className')). toMatch(/even/); }); </file> </example>

var ngClassOddDirective = classDirective('Odd', 0);

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngClassEven

@description The ngClassOdd and ngClassEven works exactly as {@link ng.directive:ngClass ngClass}, except it works in conjunction with ngRepeat and takes affect only on odd (even) rows.

This directive can be applied only within a scope of an {@link ng.directive:ngRepeat ngRepeat}.

@element ANY

@param {expression} ngClassEven {@link guide/expression Expression} to eval. The result of the evaluation can be a string representing space delimited class names or an array.

@example <example> <file name="index.html"> <ol ng-init="names=['John', 'Mary', 'Cate', 'Suz']"> <li ng-repeat="name in names"> <span ng-class-odd="'odd'" ng-class-even="'even'"> {{name}} &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; </span> </li> </ol> </file> <file name="style.css"> .odd { color: red; } .even { color: blue; } </file> <file name="scenario.js"> it('should check ng-class-odd and ng-class-even', function() { expect(element('.doc-example-live li:first span').prop('className')). toMatch(/odd/); expect(element('.doc-example-live li:last span').prop('className')). toMatch(/even/); }); </file> </example>

var ngClassEvenDirective = classDirective('Even', 1);

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngCloak

@description The ngCloak directive is used to prevent the Angular html template from being briefly displayed by the browser in its raw (uncompiled) form while your application is loading. Use this directive to avoid the undesirable flicker effect caused by the html template display.

The directive can be applied to the &lt;body&gt; element, but typically a fine-grained application is prefered in order to benefit from progressive rendering of the browser view.

ngCloak works in cooperation with a css rule that is embedded within angular.js and angular.min.js files. Following is the css rule:

<pre> [ng\:cloak], [ng-cloak], [data-ng-cloak], [x-ng-cloak], .ng-cloak, .x-ng-cloak { display: none; } </pre>

When this css rule is loaded by the browser, all html elements (including their children) that are tagged with the ng-cloak directive are hidden. When Angular comes across this directive during the compilation of the template it deletes the ngCloak element attribute, which makes the compiled element visible.

For the best result, angular.js script must be loaded in the head section of the html file; alternatively, the css rule (above) must be included in the external stylesheet of the application.

Legacy browsers, like IE7, do not provide attribute selector support (added in CSS 2.1) so they cannot match the [ng\:cloak] selector. To work around this limitation, you must add the css class ngCloak in addition to ngCloak directive as shown in the example below.

@element ANY

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <div id="template1" ng-cloak>{{ 'hello' }}</div> <div id="template2" ng-cloak class="ng-cloak">{{ 'hello IE7' }}</div> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should remove the template directive and css class', function() { expect(element('.doc-example-live #template1').attr('ng-cloak')). not().toBeDefined(); expect(element('.doc-example-live #template2').attr('ng-cloak')). not().toBeDefined(); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

var ngCloakDirective = ngDirective({
  compile: function(element, attr) {
    attr.$set('ngCloak', undefined);
    element.removeClass('ng-cloak');
  }
});

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngController

@description The ngController directive assigns behavior to a scope. This is a key aspect of how angular supports the principles behind the Model-View-Controller design pattern.

MVC components in angular:

  • Model — The Model is data in scope properties; scopes are attached to the DOM.
  • View — The template (HTML with data bindings) is rendered into the View.
  • Controller — The ngController directive specifies a Controller class; the class has methods that typically express the business logic behind the application.

    Note that an alternative way to define controllers is via the {@link ng.$route} service.

    @element ANY

    @scope

    @param {expression} ngController Name of a globally accessible constructor function or an {@link guide/expression expression} that on the current scope evaluates to a constructor function.

    @example Here is a simple form for editing user contact information. Adding, removing, clearing, and greeting are methods declared on the controller (see source tab). These methods can easily be called from the angular markup. Notice that the scope becomes the this for the controller's instance. This allows for easy access to the view data from the controller. Also notice that any changes to the data are automatically reflected in the View without the need for a manual update. <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function SettingsController($scope) { $scope.name = "John Smith"; $scope.contacts = [ {type:'phone', value:'408 555 1212'}, {type:'email', value:'john.smith@example.org'} ];

      $scope.greet = function() {    alert(this.name);   };   $scope.addContact = function() {    this.contacts.push({type:&#39;email&#39;, value:&#39;yourname@example.org&#39;});   };   $scope.removeContact = function(contactToRemove) {    var index = this.contacts.indexOf(contactToRemove);    this.contacts.splice(index, 1);   };   $scope.clearContact = function(contact) {    contact.type = &#39;phone&#39;;    contact.value = &#39;&#39;;   }; } 

    </script> <div ng-controller="SettingsController"> Name: <input type="text" ng-model="name"/> [ <a href="" ng-click="greet()">greet</a> ]<br/> Contact: <ul> <li ng-repeat="contact in contacts"> <select ng-model="contact.type"> <option>phone</option> <option>email</option> </select> <input type="text" ng-model="contact.value"/> [ <a href="" ng-click="clearContact(contact)">clear</a> | <a href="" ng-click="removeContact(contact)">X</a> ] </li> <li>[ <a href="" ng-click="addContact()">add</a> ]</li> </ul> </div> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should check controller', function() { expect(element('.doc-example-live div>:input').val()).toBe('John Smith'); expect(element('.doc-example-live li:nth-child(1) input').val()) .toBe('408 555 1212'); expect(element('.doc-example-live li:nth-child(2) input').val()) .toBe('john.smith@example.org');

     element(&#39;.doc-example-live li:first a:contains(&quot;clear&quot;)&#39;).click();  expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live li:first input&#39;).val()).toBe(&#39;&#39;);  element(&#39;.doc-example-live li:last a:contains(&quot;add&quot;)&#39;).click();  expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live li:nth-child(3) input&#39;).val())    .toBe(&#39;yourname@example.org&#39;); 

    }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

var ngControllerDirective = [function() {
  return {
    scope: true,
    controller: '@'
  };
}];

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngCsp

@priority 1000

@description Enables CSP (Content Security Policy) support. This directive should be used on the root element of the application (typically the &lt;html&gt; element or other element with the {@link ng.directive:ngApp ngApp} directive).

If enabled the performance of template expression evaluator will suffer slightly, so don't enable this mode unless you need it.

@element html

var ngCspDirective = ['$sniffer', function($sniffer) {
  return {
    priority: 1000,
    compile: function() {
      $sniffer.csp = true;
    }
  };
}];

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngClick

@description The ngClick allows you to specify custom behavior when element is clicked.

@element ANY

@param {expression} ngClick {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon click. (Event object is available as $event)

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <button ng-click="count = count + 1" ng-init="count=0"> Increment </button> count: {{count}} </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should check ng-click', function() { expect(binding('count')).toBe('0'); element('.doc-example-live :button').click(); expect(binding('count')).toBe('1'); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

A directive that allows creation of custom onclick handlers that are defined as angular expressions and are compiled and executed within the current scope.

Events that are handled via these handler are always configured not to propagate further.

var ngEventDirectives = {};
forEach(
  'click dblclick mousedown mouseup mouseover mouseout mousemove mouseenter mouseleave'.split(' '),
  function(name) {
    var directiveName = directiveNormalize('ng-' + name);
    ngEventDirectives[directiveName] = ['$parse', function($parse) {
      return function(scope, element, attr) {
        var fn = $parse(attr[directiveName]);
        element.bind(lowercase(name), function(event) {
          scope.$apply(function() {
            fn(scope, {$event:event});
          });
        });
      };
    }];
  }
);

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngDblclick

@description The ngDblclick directive allows you to specify custom behavior on dblclick event.

@element ANY

@param {expression} ngDblclick {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon dblclick. (Event object is available as $event)

@example See {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick}

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngMousedown

@description The ngMousedown directive allows you to specify custom behavior on mousedown event.

@element ANY

@param {expression} ngMousedown {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon mousedown. (Event object is available as $event)

@example See {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick}

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngMouseup

@description Specify custom behavior on mouseup event.

@element ANY

@param {expression} ngMouseup {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon mouseup. (Event object is available as $event)

@example See {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick}

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngMouseover

@description Specify custom behavior on mouseover event.

@element ANY

@param {expression} ngMouseover {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon mouseover. (Event object is available as $event)

@example See {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick}

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngMouseenter

@description Specify custom behavior on mouseenter event.

@element ANY

@param {expression} ngMouseenter {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon mouseenter. (Event object is available as $event)

@example See {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick}

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngMouseleave

@description Specify custom behavior on mouseleave event.

@element ANY

@param {expression} ngMouseleave {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon mouseleave. (Event object is available as $event)

@example See {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick}

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngMousemove

@description Specify custom behavior on mousemove event.

@element ANY

@param {expression} ngMousemove {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon mousemove. (Event object is available as $event)

@example See {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick}

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngSubmit

@description Enables binding angular expressions to onsubmit events.

Additionally it prevents the default action (which for form means sending the request to the server and reloading the current page).

@element form

@param {expression} ngSubmit {@link guide/expression Expression} to eval.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.list = []; $scope.text = 'hello'; $scope.submit = function() { if (this.text) { this.list.push(this.text); this.text = ''; } }; } </script> <form ng-submit="submit()" ng-controller="Ctrl"> Enter text and hit enter: <input type="text" ng-model="text" name="text" /> <input type="submit" id="submit" value="Submit" /> <pre>list={{list}}</pre> </form> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should check ng-submit', function() { expect(binding('list')).toBe('[]'); element('.doc-example-live #submit').click(); expect(binding('list')).toBe('["hello"]'); expect(input('text').val()).toBe(''); }); it('should ignore empty strings', function() { expect(binding('list')).toBe('[]'); element('.doc-example-live #submit').click(); element('.doc-example-live #submit').click(); expect(binding('list')).toBe('["hello"]'); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

var ngSubmitDirective = ngDirective(function(scope, element, attrs) {
  element.bind('submit', function() {
    scope.$apply(attrs.ngSubmit);
  });
});

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngInclude

@restrict ECA

@description Fetches, compiles and includes an external HTML fragment.

Keep in mind that Same Origin Policy applies to included resources (e.g. ngInclude won't work for cross-domain requests on all browsers and for file:// access on some browsers).

@scope

@param {string} ngInclude|src angular expression evaluating to URL. If the source is a string constant, make sure you wrap it in quotes, e.g. src=&quot;&#39;myPartialTemplate.html&#39;&quot;.

@param {string=} onload Expression to evaluate when a new partial is loaded.

@param {string=} autoscroll Whether ngInclude should call {@link ng.$anchorScroll $anchorScroll} to scroll the viewport after the content is loaded.

              - If the attribute is not set, disable scrolling.               - If the attribute is set without value, enable scrolling.               - Otherwise enable scrolling only if the expression evaluates to truthy value. 

@example <example> <file name="index.html"> <div ng-controller="Ctrl"> <select ng-model="template" ng-options="t.name for t in templates"> <option value="">(blank)</option> </select> url of the template: <tt>{{template.url}}</tt> <hr/> <div ng-include src="template.url"></div> </div> </file> <file name="script.js"> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.templates = [ { name: 'template1.html', url: 'template1.html'} , { name: 'template2.html', url: 'template2.html'} ]; $scope.template = $scope.templates[0]; } </file> <file name="template1.html"> Content of template1.html </file> <file name="template2.html"> Content of template2.html </file> <file name="scenario.js"> it('should load template1.html', function() { expect(element('.doc-example-live [ng-include]').text()). toMatch(/Content of template1.html/); }); it('should load template2.html', function() { select('template').option('1'); expect(element('.doc-example-live [ng-include]').text()). toMatch(/Content of template2.html/); }); it('should change to blank', function() { select('template').option(''); expect(element('.doc-example-live [ng-include]').text()).toEqual(''); }); </file> </example>

@ngdoc event

@name ng.directive:ngInclude#$includeContentLoaded

@eventOf ng.directive:ngInclude

@eventType emit on the current ngInclude scope

@description Emitted every time the ngInclude content is reloaded.

var ngIncludeDirective = ['$http', '$templateCache', '$anchorScroll', '$compile',
                  function($http,   $templateCache,   $anchorScroll,   $compile) {
  return {
    restrict: 'ECA',
    terminal: true,
    compile: function(element, attr) {
      var srcExp = attr.ngInclude || attr.src,
          onloadExp = attr.onload || '',
          autoScrollExp = attr.autoscroll;

      return function(scope, element) {
        var changeCounter = 0,
            childScope;

        var clearContent = function() {
          if (childScope) {
            childScope.$destroy();
            childScope = null;
          }

          element.html('');
        };

        scope.$watch(srcExp, function ngIncludeWatchAction(src) {
          var thisChangeId = ++changeCounter;

          if (src) {
            $http.get(src, {cache: $templateCache}).success(function(response) {
              if (thisChangeId !== changeCounter) return;

              if (childScope) childScope.$destroy();
              childScope = scope.$new();

              element.html(response);
              $compile(element.contents())(childScope);

              if (isDefined(autoScrollExp) && (!autoScrollExp || scope.$eval(autoScrollExp))) {
                $anchorScroll();
              }

              childScope.$emit('$includeContentLoaded');
              scope.$eval(onloadExp);
            }).error(function() {
              if (thisChangeId === changeCounter) clearContent();
            });
          } else clearContent();
        });
      };
    }
  };
}];

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngInit

@description The ngInit directive specifies initialization tasks to be executed before the template enters execution mode during bootstrap.

@element ANY

@param {expression} ngInit {@link guide/expression Expression} to eval.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <div ng-init="greeting='Hello'; person='World'"> {{greeting}} {{person}}! </div> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should check greeting', function() { expect(binding('greeting')).toBe('Hello'); expect(binding('person')).toBe('World'); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

var ngInitDirective = ngDirective({
  compile: function() {
    return {
      pre: function(scope, element, attrs) {
        scope.$eval(attrs.ngInit);
      }
    }
  }
});

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngNonBindable

@priority 1000

@description Sometimes it is necessary to write code which looks like bindings but which should be left alone by angular. Use ngNonBindable to make angular ignore a chunk of HTML.

@element ANY

@example In this example there are two location where a simple binding ({{}}) is present, but the one wrapped in ngNonBindable is left alone.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <div>Normal: {{1 + 2}}</div> <div ng-non-bindable>Ignored: {{1 + 2}}</div> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should check ng-non-bindable', function() { expect(using('.doc-example-live').binding('1 + 2')).toBe('3'); expect(using('.doc-example-live').element('div:last').text()). toMatch(/1 + 2/); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

var ngNonBindableDirective = ngDirective({ terminal: true, priority: 1000 });

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngPluralize

@restrict EA

@description # Overview ngPluralize is a directive that displays messages according to en-US localization rules. These rules are bundled with angular.js and the rules can be overridden (see {@link guide/i18n Angular i18n} dev guide). You configure ngPluralize directive by specifying the mappings between {@link http://unicode.org/repos/cldr-tmp/trunk/diff/supplemental/languagepluralrules.html plural categories} and the strings to be displayed.

# Plural categories and explicit number rules There are two {@link http://unicode.org/repos/cldr-tmp/trunk/diff/supplemental/languagepluralrules.html plural categories} in Angular's default en-US locale: "one" and "other".

While a pural category may match many numbers (for example, in en-US locale, "other" can match any number that is not 1), an explicit number rule can only match one number. For example, the explicit number rule for "3" matches the number 3. You will see the use of plural categories and explicit number rules throughout later parts of this documentation.

# Configuring ngPluralize You configure ngPluralize by providing 2 attributes: count and when. You can also provide an optional attribute, offset.

The value of the count attribute can be either a string or an {@link guide/expression Angular expression}; these are evaluated on the current scope for its bound value.

The when attribute specifies the mappings between plural categories and the actual string to be displayed. The value of the attribute should be a JSON object so that Angular can interpret it correctly.

The following example shows how to configure ngPluralize:

<pre> <ng-pluralize count="personCount" when="{'0': 'Nobody is viewing.', 'one': '1 person is viewing.', 'other': '{} people are viewing.'}"> </ng-pluralize> </pre>

In the example, &quot;0: Nobody is viewing.&quot; is an explicit number rule. If you did not specify this rule, 0 would be matched to the "other" category and "0 people are viewing" would be shown instead of "Nobody is viewing". You can specify an explicit number rule for other numbers, for example 12, so that instead of showing "12 people are viewing", you can show "a dozen people are viewing".

You can use a set of closed braces({}) as a placeholder for the number that you want substituted into pluralized strings. In the previous example, Angular will replace {} with <span ng-non-bindable>{{personCount}}</span>. The closed braces {} is a placeholder for <span ng-non-bindable>{{numberExpression}}</span>.

# Configuring ngPluralize with offset The offset attribute allows further customization of pluralized text, which can result in a better user experience. For example, instead of the message "4 people are viewing this document", you might display "John, Kate and 2 others are viewing this document". The offset attribute allows you to offset a number by any desired value. Let's take a look at an example:

<pre> <ng-pluralize count="personCount" offset=2 when="{'0': 'Nobody is viewing.', '1': '{{person1}} is viewing.', '2': '{{person1}} and {{person2}} are viewing.', 'one': '{{person1}}, {{person2}} and one other person are viewing.', 'other': '{{person1}}, {{person2}} and {} other people are viewing.'}"> </ng-pluralize> </pre>

Notice that we are still using two plural categories(one, other), but we added three explicit number rules 0, 1 and 2. When one person, perhaps John, views the document, "John is viewing" will be shown. When three people view the document, no explicit number rule is found, so an offset of 2 is taken off 3, and Angular uses 1 to decide the plural category. In this case, plural category 'one' is matched and "John, Marry and one other person are viewing" is shown.

Note that when you specify offsets, you must provide explicit number rules for numbers from 0 up to and including the offset. If you use an offset of 3, for example, you must provide explicit number rules for 0, 1, 2 and 3. You must also provide plural strings for plural categories "one" and "other".

@param {string|expression} count The variable to be bounded to.

@param {string} when The mapping between plural category to its correspoding strings.

@param {number=} offset Offset to deduct from the total number.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.person1 = 'Igor'; $scope.person2 = 'Misko'; $scope.personCount = 1; } </script> <div ng-controller="Ctrl"> Person 1:<input type="text" ng-model="person1" value="Igor" /><br/> Person 2:<input type="text" ng-model="person2" value="Misko" /><br/> Number of People:<input type="text" ng-model="personCount" value="1" /><br/>

      &lt;!--- Example with simple pluralization rules for en locale ---&gt;       Without Offset:       &lt;ng-pluralize count=&quot;personCount&quot;                     when=&quot;{&#39;0&#39;: &#39;Nobody is viewing.&#39;,                            &#39;one&#39;: &#39;1 person is viewing.&#39;,                            &#39;other&#39;: &#39;{} people are viewing.&#39;}&quot;&gt;       &lt;/ng-pluralize&gt;&lt;br&gt;       &lt;!--- Example with offset ---&gt;       With Offset(2):       &lt;ng-pluralize count=&quot;personCount&quot; offset=2                     when=&quot;{&#39;0&#39;: &#39;Nobody is viewing.&#39;,                            &#39;1&#39;: &#39;{{person1}} is viewing.&#39;,                            &#39;2&#39;: &#39;{{person1}} and {{person2}} are viewing.&#39;,                            &#39;one&#39;: &#39;{{person1}}, {{person2}} and one other person are viewing.&#39;,                            &#39;other&#39;: &#39;{{person1}}, {{person2}} and {} other people are viewing.&#39;}&quot;&gt;       &lt;/ng-pluralize&gt;     &lt;/div&gt;   &lt;/doc:source&gt;   &lt;doc:scenario&gt;     it(&#39;should show correct pluralized string&#39;, function() {       expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:first&#39;).text()).                                          toBe(&#39;1 person is viewing.&#39;);       expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:last&#39;).text()).                                             toBe(&#39;Igor is viewing.&#39;);       using(&#39;.doc-example-live&#39;).input(&#39;personCount&#39;).enter(&#39;0&#39;);       expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:first&#39;).text()).                                            toBe(&#39;Nobody is viewing.&#39;);       expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:last&#39;).text()).                                           toBe(&#39;Nobody is viewing.&#39;);       using(&#39;.doc-example-live&#39;).input(&#39;personCount&#39;).enter(&#39;2&#39;);       expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:first&#39;).text()).                                         toBe(&#39;2 people are viewing.&#39;);       expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:last&#39;).text()).                           toBe(&#39;Igor and Misko are viewing.&#39;);       using(&#39;.doc-example-live&#39;).input(&#39;personCount&#39;).enter(&#39;3&#39;);       expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:first&#39;).text()).                                         toBe(&#39;3 people are viewing.&#39;);       expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:last&#39;).text()).                           toBe(&#39;Igor, Misko and one other person are viewing.&#39;);       using(&#39;.doc-example-live&#39;).input(&#39;personCount&#39;).enter(&#39;4&#39;);       expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:first&#39;).text()).                                         toBe(&#39;4 people are viewing.&#39;);       expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:last&#39;).text()).                           toBe(&#39;Igor, Misko and 2 other people are viewing.&#39;);     });     it(&#39;should show data-binded names&#39;, function() {       using(&#39;.doc-example-live&#39;).input(&#39;personCount&#39;).enter(&#39;4&#39;);       expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:last&#39;).text()).           toBe(&#39;Igor, Misko and 2 other people are viewing.&#39;);       using(&#39;.doc-example-live&#39;).input(&#39;person1&#39;).enter(&#39;Di&#39;);       using(&#39;.doc-example-live&#39;).input(&#39;person2&#39;).enter(&#39;Vojta&#39;);       expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:last&#39;).text()).           toBe(&#39;Di, Vojta and 2 other people are viewing.&#39;);     });   &lt;/doc:scenario&gt; &lt;/doc:example&gt; 
var ngPluralizeDirective = ['$locale', '$interpolate', function($locale, $interpolate) {
  var BRACE = /{}/g;
  return {
    restrict: 'EA',
    link: function(scope, element, attr) {
      var numberExp = attr.count,
          whenExp = element.attr(attr.$attr.when), // this is because we have {{}} in attrs
          offset = attr.offset || 0,
          whens = scope.$eval(whenExp),
          whensExpFns = {},
          startSymbol = $interpolate.startSymbol(),
          endSymbol = $interpolate.endSymbol();

      forEach(whens, function(expression, key) {
        whensExpFns[key] =
          $interpolate(expression.replace(BRACE, startSymbol + numberExp + '-' +
            offset + endSymbol));
      });

      scope.$watch(function ngPluralizeWatch() {
        var value = parseFloat(scope.$eval(numberExp));

        if (!isNaN(value)) {

if explicit number rule such as 1, 2, 3... is defined, just use it. Otherwise, check it against pluralization rules in $locale service

          if (!whens[value]) value = $locale.pluralCat(value - offset);
           return whensExpFns[value](scope, element, true);
        } else {
          return '';
        }
      }, function ngPluralizeWatchAction(newVal) {
        element.text(newVal);
      });
    }
  };
}];

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngRepeat

@description The ngRepeat directive instantiates a template once per item from a collection. Each template instance gets its own scope, where the given loop variable is set to the current collection item, and $index is set to the item index or key.

Special properties are exposed on the local scope of each template instance, including:

  • $index{number} – iterator offset of the repeated element (0..length-1)
  • $first{boolean} – true if the repeated element is first in the iterator.
  • $middle{boolean} – true if the repeated element is between the first and last in the iterator.
  • $last{boolean} – true if the repeated element is last in the iterator.

    @element ANY

    @scope

    @priority 1000

    @param {repeat_expression} ngRepeat The expression indicating how to enumerate a collection. Two formats are currently supported:

  • variable in expression – where variable is the user defined loop variable and expression is a scope expression giving the collection to enumerate.

    For example: track in cd.tracks.

  • (key, value) in expression – where key and value can be any user defined identifiers, and expression is the scope expression giving the collection to enumerate.

    For example: (name, age) in {&#39;adam&#39;:10, &#39;amalie&#39;:12}.

    @example This example initializes the scope to a list of names and then uses ngRepeat to display every person: <doc:example> <doc:source> <div ng-init="friends = [{name:'John', age:25}, {name:'Mary', age:28}]"> I have {{friends.length}} friends. They are: <ul> <li ng-repeat="friend in friends"> [{{$index + 1}}] {{friend.name}} who is {{friend.age}} years old. </li> </ul> </div> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should check ng-repeat', function() { var r = using('.doc-example-live').repeater('ul li'); expect(r.count()).toBe(2); expect(r.row(0)).toEqual(["1","John","25"]); expect(r.row(1)).toEqual(["2","Mary","28"]); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

var ngRepeatDirective = ngDirective({
  transclude: 'element',
  priority: 1000,
  terminal: true,
  compile: function(element, attr, linker) {
    return function(scope, iterStartElement, attr){
      var expression = attr.ngRepeat;
      var match = expression.match(/^\s*(.+)\s+in\s+(.*)\s*$/),
        lhs, rhs, valueIdent, keyIdent;
      if (! match) {
        throw Error("Expected ngRepeat in form of '_item_ in _collection_' but got '" +
          expression + "'.");
      }
      lhs = match[1];
      rhs = match[2];
      match = lhs.match(/^(?:([\$\w]+)|\(([\$\w]+)\s*,\s*([\$\w]+)\))$/);
      if (!match) {
        throw Error("'item' in 'item in collection' should be identifier or (key, value) but got '" +
            lhs + "'.");
      }
      valueIdent = match[3] || match[1];
      keyIdent = match[2];

Store a list of elements from previous run. This is a hash where key is the item from the iterator, and the value is an array of objects with following properties. - scope: bound scope - element: previous element. - index: position We need an array of these objects since the same object can be returned from the iterator. We expect this to be a rare case.

      var lastOrder = new HashQueueMap();

      scope.$watch(function ngRepeatWatch(scope){
        var index, length,
            collection = scope.$eval(rhs),
            cursor = iterStartElement,     // current position of the node

Same as lastOrder but it has the current state. It will become the lastOrder on the next iteration.

            nextOrder = new HashQueueMap(),
            arrayBound,
            childScope,
            key, value, // key/value of iteration
            array,
            last;       // last object information {scope, element, index}



        if (!isArray(collection)) {

if object, extract keys, sort them and use to determine order of iteration over obj props

          array = [];
          for(key in collection) {
            if (collection.hasOwnProperty(key) && key.charAt(0) != '$') {
              array.push(key);
            }
          }
          array.sort();
        } else {
          array = collection || [];
        }

        arrayBound = array.length-1;

we are not using forEach for perf reasons (trying to avoid #call)

        for (index = 0, length = array.length; index < length; index++) {
          key = (collection === array) ? index : array[index];
          value = collection[key];

          last = lastOrder.shift(value);

          if (last) {

if we have already seen this object, then we need to reuse the associated scope/element

            childScope = last.scope;
            nextOrder.push(value, last);

            if (index === last.index) {

do nothing

              cursor = last.element;
            } else {

existing item which got moved

              last.index = index;

This may be a noop, if the element is next, but I don't know of a good way to figure this out, since it would require extra DOM access, so let's just hope that the browsers realizes that it is noop, and treats it as such.

              cursor.after(last.element);
              cursor = last.element;
            }
          } else {

new item which we don't know about

            childScope = scope.$new();
          }

          childScope[valueIdent] = value;
          if (keyIdent) childScope[keyIdent] = key;
          childScope.$index = index;

          childScope.$first = (index === 0);
          childScope.$last = (index === arrayBound);
          childScope.$middle = !(childScope.$first || childScope.$last);

          if (!last) {
            linker(childScope, function(clone){
              cursor.after(clone);
              last = {
                  scope: childScope,
                  element: (cursor = clone),
                  index: index
                };
              nextOrder.push(value, last);
            });
          }
        }

shrink children

        for (key in lastOrder) {
          if (lastOrder.hasOwnProperty(key)) {
            array = lastOrder[key];
            while(array.length) {
              value = array.pop();
              value.element.remove();
              value.scope.$destroy();
            }
          }
        }

        lastOrder = nextOrder;
      });
    };
  }
});

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngShow

@description The ngShow and ngHide directives show or hide a portion of the DOM tree (HTML) conditionally.

@element ANY

@param {expression} ngShow If the {@link guide/expression expression} is truthy then the element is shown or hidden respectively.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> Click me: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="checked"><br/> Show: <span ng-show="checked">I show up when your checkbox is checked.</span> <br/> Hide: <span ng-hide="checked">I hide when your checkbox is checked.</span> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should check ng-show / ng-hide', function() { expect(element('.doc-example-live span:first:hidden').count()).toEqual(1); expect(element('.doc-example-live span:last:visible').count()).toEqual(1);

     input(&#39;checked&#39;).check();      expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live span:first:visible&#39;).count()).toEqual(1);      expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live span:last:hidden&#39;).count()).toEqual(1);    });  &lt;/doc:scenario&gt; 

</doc:example>

TODO(misko): refactor to remove element from the DOM

var ngShowDirective = ngDirective(function(scope, element, attr){
  scope.$watch(attr.ngShow, function ngShowWatchAction(value){
    element.css('display', toBoolean(value) ? '' : 'none');
  });
});

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngHide

@description The ngHide and ngShow directives hide or show a portion of the DOM tree (HTML) conditionally.

@element ANY

@param {expression} ngHide If the {@link guide/expression expression} is truthy then the element is shown or hidden respectively.

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> Click me: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="checked"><br/> Show: <span ng-show="checked">I show up when you checkbox is checked?</span> <br/> Hide: <span ng-hide="checked">I hide when you checkbox is checked?</span> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should check ng-show / ng-hide', function() { expect(element('.doc-example-live span:first:hidden').count()).toEqual(1); expect(element('.doc-example-live span:last:visible').count()).toEqual(1);

     input(&#39;checked&#39;).check();      expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live span:first:visible&#39;).count()).toEqual(1);      expect(element(&#39;.doc-example-live span:last:hidden&#39;).count()).toEqual(1);    });  &lt;/doc:scenario&gt; 

</doc:example>

TODO(misko): refactor to remove element from the DOM

var ngHideDirective = ngDirective(function(scope, element, attr){
  scope.$watch(attr.ngHide, function ngHideWatchAction(value){
    element.css('display', toBoolean(value) ? 'none' : '');
  });
});

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngStyle

@description The ngStyle directive allows you to set CSS style on an HTML element conditionally.

@element ANY

@param {expression} ngStyle {@link guide/expression Expression} which evals to an object whose keys are CSS style names and values are corresponding values for those CSS keys.

@example <example> <file name="index.html"> <input type="button" value="set" ng-click="myStyle={color:'red'}"> <input type="button" value="clear" ng-click="myStyle={}"> <br/> <span ng-style="myStyle">Sample Text</span> <pre>myStyle={{myStyle}}</pre> </file> <file name="style.css"> span { color: black; } </file> <file name="scenario.js"> it('should check ng-style', function() { expect(element('.doc-example-live span').css('color')).toBe('rgb(0, 0, 0)'); element('.doc-example-live :button[value=set]').click(); expect(element('.doc-example-live span').css('color')).toBe('rgb(255, 0, 0)'); element('.doc-example-live :button[value=clear]').click(); expect(element('.doc-example-live span').css('color')).toBe('rgb(0, 0, 0)'); }); </file> </example>

var ngStyleDirective = ngDirective(function(scope, element, attr) {
  scope.$watch(attr.ngStyle, function ngStyleWatchAction(newStyles, oldStyles) {
    if (oldStyles && (newStyles !== oldStyles)) {
      forEach(oldStyles, function(val, style) { element.css(style, '');});
    }
    if (newStyles) element.css(newStyles);
  }, true);
});

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngSwitch

@restrict EA

@description Conditionally change the DOM structure.

@usage <ANY ng-switch="expression"> <ANY ng-switch-when="matchValue1">...</ANY> <ANY ng-switch-when="matchValue2">...</ANY> ... <ANY ng-switch-default>...</ANY> </ANY>

@scope

@param {*} ngSwitch|on expression to match against <tt>ng-switch-when</tt>.

@paramDescription On child elments add:

  • ngSwitchWhen: the case statement to match against. If match then this case will be displayed.
  • ngSwitchDefault: the default case when no other casses match.

    @example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.items = ['settings', 'home', 'other']; $scope.selection = $scope.items[0]; } </script> <div ng-controller="Ctrl"> <select ng-model="selection" ng-options="item for item in items"> </select> <tt>selection={{selection}}</tt> <hr/> <div ng-switch on="selection" > <div ng-switch-when="settings">Settings Div</div> <span ng-switch-when="home">Home Span</span> <span ng-switch-default>default</span> </div> </div> </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should start in settings', function() { expect(element('.doc-example-live [ng-switch]').text()).toMatch(/Settings Div/); }); it('should change to home', function() { select('selection').option('home'); expect(element('.doc-example-live [ng-switch]').text()).toMatch(/Home Span/); }); it('should select deafault', function() { select('selection').option('other'); expect(element('.doc-example-live [ng-switch]').text()).toMatch(/default/); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

var NG_SWITCH = 'ng-switch';
var ngSwitchDirective = valueFn({
  restrict: 'EA',
  require: 'ngSwitch',

asks for $scope to fool the BC controller module

  controller: ['$scope', function ngSwitchController() {
    this.cases = {};
  }],
  link: function(scope, element, attr, ctrl) {
    var watchExpr = attr.ngSwitch || attr.on,
        selectedTransclude,
        selectedElement,
        selectedScope;

    scope.$watch(watchExpr, function ngSwitchWatchAction(value) {
      if (selectedElement) {
        selectedScope.$destroy();
        selectedElement.remove();
        selectedElement = selectedScope = null;
      }
      if ((selectedTransclude = ctrl.cases['!' + value] || ctrl.cases['?'])) {
        scope.$eval(attr.change);
        selectedScope = scope.$new();
        selectedTransclude(selectedScope, function(caseElement) {
          selectedElement = caseElement;
          element.append(caseElement);
        });
      }
    });
  }
});

var ngSwitchWhenDirective = ngDirective({
  transclude: 'element',
  priority: 500,
  require: '^ngSwitch',
  compile: function(element, attrs, transclude) {
    return function(scope, element, attr, ctrl) {
      ctrl.cases['!' + attrs.ngSwitchWhen] = transclude;
    };
  }
});

var ngSwitchDefaultDirective = ngDirective({
  transclude: 'element',
  priority: 500,
  require: '^ngSwitch',
  compile: function(element, attrs, transclude) {
    return function(scope, element, attr, ctrl) {
      ctrl.cases['?'] = transclude;
    };
  }
});

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngTransclude

@description Insert the transcluded DOM here.

@element ANY

@example <doc:example module="transclude"> <doc:source> <script> function Ctrl($scope) { $scope.title = 'Lorem Ipsum'; $scope.text = 'Neque porro quisquam est qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor...'; }

     angular.module(&#39;transclude&#39;, [])       .directive(&#39;pane&#39;, function(){          return {            restrict: &#39;E&#39;,            transclude: true,            scope: &#39;isolate&#39;,            locals: { title:&#39;bind&#39; },            template: &#39;&lt;div style=&quot;border: 1px solid black;&quot;&gt;&#39; +                        &#39;&lt;div style=&quot;background-color: gray&quot;&gt;{{title}}&lt;/div&gt;&#39; +                        &#39;&lt;div ng-transclude&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&#39; +                      &#39;&lt;/div&gt;&#39;          };      });    &lt;/script&gt;    &lt;div ng-controller=&quot;Ctrl&quot;&gt;      &lt;input ng-model=&quot;title&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;      &lt;textarea ng-model=&quot;text&quot;&gt;&lt;/textarea&gt; &lt;br/&gt;      &lt;pane title=&quot;{{title}}&quot;&gt;{{text}}&lt;/pane&gt;    &lt;/div&gt;  &lt;/doc:source&gt;  &lt;doc:scenario&gt;     it(&#39;should have transcluded&#39;, function() {       input(&#39;title&#39;).enter(&#39;TITLE&#39;);       input(&#39;text&#39;).enter(&#39;TEXT&#39;);       expect(binding(&#39;title&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;TITLE&#39;);       expect(binding(&#39;text&#39;)).toEqual(&#39;TEXT&#39;);     });  &lt;/doc:scenario&gt; 

</doc:example>

var ngTranscludeDirective = ngDirective({
  controller: ['$transclude', '$element', function($transclude, $element) {
    $transclude(function(clone) {
      $element.append(clone);
    });
  }]
});

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:ngView

@restrict ECA

@description # Overview ngView is a directive that complements the {@link ng.$route $route} service by including the rendered template of the current route into the main layout (index.html) file. Every time the current route changes, the included view changes with it according to the configuration of the $route service.

@scope

@example <example module="ngView"> <file name="index.html"> <div ng-controller="MainCntl"> Choose: <a href="Book/Moby">Moby</a> | <a href="Book/Moby/ch/1">Moby: Ch1</a> | <a href="Book/Gatsby">Gatsby</a> | <a href="Book/Gatsby/ch/4?key=value">Gatsby: Ch4</a> | <a href="Book/Scarlet">Scarlet Letter</a><br/>

      &lt;div ng-view&gt;&lt;/div&gt;       &lt;hr /&gt;       &lt;pre&gt;$location.path() = {{$location.path()}}&lt;/pre&gt;       &lt;pre&gt;$route.current.templateUrl = {{$route.current.templateUrl}}&lt;/pre&gt;       &lt;pre&gt;$route.current.params = {{$route.current.params}}&lt;/pre&gt;       &lt;pre&gt;$route.current.scope.name = {{$route.current.scope.name}}&lt;/pre&gt;       &lt;pre&gt;$routeParams = {{$routeParams}}&lt;/pre&gt;     &lt;/div&gt;   &lt;/file&gt;   &lt;file name=&quot;book.html&quot;&gt;     controller: {{name}}&lt;br /&gt;     Book Id: {{params.bookId}}&lt;br /&gt;   &lt;/file&gt;   &lt;file name=&quot;chapter.html&quot;&gt;     controller: {{name}}&lt;br /&gt;     Book Id: {{params.bookId}}&lt;br /&gt;     Chapter Id: {{params.chapterId}}   &lt;/file&gt;   &lt;file name=&quot;script.js&quot;&gt;     angular.module(&#39;ngView&#39;, [], function($routeProvider, $locationProvider) {       $routeProvider.when(&#39;/Book/:bookId&#39;, {         templateUrl: &#39;book.html&#39;,         controller: BookCntl       });       $routeProvider.when(&#39;/Book/:bookId/ch/:chapterId&#39;, {         templateUrl: &#39;chapter.html&#39;,         controller: ChapterCntl       });       // configure html5 to get links working on jsfiddle       $locationProvider.html5Mode(true);     });     function MainCntl($scope, $route, $routeParams, $location) {       $scope.$route = $route;       $scope.$location = $location;       $scope.$routeParams = $routeParams;     }     function BookCntl($scope, $routeParams) {       $scope.name = &quot;BookCntl&quot;;       $scope.params = $routeParams;     }     function ChapterCntl($scope, $routeParams) {       $scope.name = &quot;ChapterCntl&quot;;       $scope.params = $routeParams;     }   &lt;/file&gt;   &lt;file name=&quot;scenario.js&quot;&gt;     it(&#39;should load and compile correct template&#39;, function() {       element(&#39;a:contains(&quot;Moby: Ch1&quot;)&#39;).click();       var content = element(&#39;.doc-example-live [ng-view]&#39;).text();       expect(content).toMatch(/controller\: ChapterCntl/);       expect(content).toMatch(/Book Id\: Moby/);       expect(content).toMatch(/Chapter Id\: 1/);       element(&#39;a:contains(&quot;Scarlet&quot;)&#39;).click();       content = element(&#39;.doc-example-live [ng-view]&#39;).text();       expect(content).toMatch(/controller\: BookCntl/);       expect(content).toMatch(/Book Id\: Scarlet/);     });   &lt;/file&gt; &lt;/example&gt; 

@ngdoc event

@name ng.directive:ngView#$viewContentLoaded

@eventOf ng.directive:ngView

@eventType emit on the current ngView scope

@description Emitted every time the ngView content is reloaded.

var ngViewDirective = ['$http', '$templateCache', '$route', '$anchorScroll', '$compile',
                       '$controller',
               function($http,   $templateCache,   $route,   $anchorScroll,   $compile,
                        $controller) {
  return {
    restrict: 'ECA',
    terminal: true,
    link: function(scope, element, attr) {
      var lastScope,
          onloadExp = attr.onload || '';

      scope.$on('$routeChangeSuccess', update);
      update();


      function destroyLastScope() {
        if (lastScope) {
          lastScope.$destroy();
          lastScope = null;
        }
      }

      function clearContent() {
        element.html('');
        destroyLastScope();
      }

      function update() {
        var locals = $route.current && $route.current.locals,
            template = locals && locals.$template;

        if (template) {
          element.html(template);
          destroyLastScope();

          var link = $compile(element.contents()),
              current = $route.current,
              controller;

          lastScope = current.scope = scope.$new();
          if (current.controller) {
            locals.$scope = lastScope;
            controller = $controller(current.controller, locals);
            element.children().data('$ngControllerController', controller);
          }

          link(lastScope);
          lastScope.$emit('$viewContentLoaded');
          lastScope.$eval(onloadExp);

$anchorScroll might listen on event...

          $anchorScroll();
        } else {
          clearContent();
        }
      }
    }
  };
}];

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:script

@description Load content of a script tag, with type text/ng-template, into $templateCache, so that the template can be used by ngInclude, ngView or directive templates.

@restrict E

@param {'text/ng-template'} type must be set to &#39;text/ng-template&#39;

@example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script type="text/ng-template" id="/tpl.html"> Content of the template. </script>

  &lt;a ng-click=&quot;currentTpl=&#39;/tpl.html&#39;&quot; id=&quot;tpl-link&quot;&gt;Load inlined template&lt;/a&gt;   &lt;div id=&quot;tpl-content&quot; ng-include src=&quot;currentTpl&quot;&gt;&lt;/div&gt; &lt;/doc:source&gt; &lt;doc:scenario&gt;   it(&#39;should load template defined inside script tag&#39;, function() {     element(&#39;#tpl-link&#39;).click();     expect(element(&#39;#tpl-content&#39;).text()).toMatch(/Content of the template/);   }); &lt;/doc:scenario&gt; 

</doc:example>

var scriptDirective = ['$templateCache', function($templateCache) {
  return {
    restrict: 'E',
    terminal: true,
    compile: function(element, attr) {
      if (attr.type == 'text/ng-template') {
        var templateUrl = attr.id,

IE is not consistent, in scripts we have to read .text but in other nodes we have to read .textContent

            text = element[0].text;

        $templateCache.put(templateUrl, text);
      }
    }
  };
}];

@ngdoc directive

@name ng.directive:select

@restrict E

@description HTML SELECT element with angular data-binding.

# ngOptions

Optionally ngOptions attribute can be used to dynamically generate a list of &lt;option&gt; elements for a &lt;select&gt; element using an array or an object obtained by evaluating the ngOptions expression. ˝˝ When an item in the select menu is select, the value of array element or object property represented by the selected option will be bound to the model identified by the ngModel directive of the parent select element.

Optionally, a single hard-coded &lt;option&gt; element, with the value set to an empty string, can be nested into the &lt;select&gt; element. This element will then represent null or "not selected" option. See example below for demonstration.

Note: ngOptions provides iterator facility for &lt;option&gt; element which should be used instead of {@link ng.directive:ngRepeat ngRepeat} when you want the select model to be bound to a non-string value. This is because an option element can currently be bound to string values only.

@param {string} name assignable expression to data-bind to.

@param {string=} required The control is considered valid only if value is entered.

@param {string=} ngRequired Adds required attribute and required validation constraint to the element when the ngRequired expression evaluates to true. Use ngRequired instead of required when you want to data-bind to the required attribute.

@param {comprehension_expression=} ngOptions in one of the following forms:

  • for array data sources:
    • label for value in array
    • select as label for value in array
    • label group by group for value in array
    • select as label group by group for value in array
  • for object data sources:

    • label for (key , value) in object
    • select as label for (key , value) in object
    • label group by group for (key, value) in object
    • select as label group by group for (key, value) in object

    Where:

  • array / object: an expression which evaluates to an array / object to iterate over.

  • value: local variable which will refer to each item in the array or each property value of object during iteration.
  • key: local variable which will refer to a property name in object during iteration.
  • label: The result of this expression will be the label for &lt;option&gt; element. The expression will most likely refer to the value variable (e.g. value.propertyName).
  • select: The result of this expression will be bound to the model of the parent &lt;select&gt; element. If not specified, select expression will default to value.
  • group: The result of this expression will be used to group options using the &lt;optgroup&gt; DOM element.

    @example <doc:example> <doc:source> <script> function MyCntrl($scope) { $scope.colors = [ {name:'black', shade:'dark'}, {name:'white', shade:'light'}, {name:'red', shade:'dark'}, {name:'blue', shade:'dark'}, {name:'yellow', shade:'light'} ]; $scope.color = $scope.colors[2]; // red } </script> <div ng-controller="MyCntrl"> <ul> <li ng-repeat="color in colors"> Name: <input ng-model="color.name"> [<a href ng-click="colors.splice($index, 1)">X</a>] </li> <li> [<a href ng-click="colors.push({})">add</a>] </li> </ul> <hr/> Color (null not allowed): <select ng-model="color" ng-options="c.name for c in colors"></select><br>

      Color (null allowed):   &lt;span  class=&quot;nullable&quot;&gt;     &lt;select ng-model=&quot;color&quot; ng-options=&quot;c.name for c in colors&quot;&gt;       &lt;option value=&quot;&quot;&gt;-- chose color --&lt;/option&gt;     &lt;/select&gt;   &lt;/span&gt;&lt;br/&gt;   Color grouped by shade:   &lt;select ng-model=&quot;color&quot; ng-options=&quot;c.name group by c.shade for c in colors&quot;&gt;   &lt;/select&gt;&lt;br/&gt;   Select &lt;a href ng-click=&quot;color={name:&#39;not in list&#39;}&quot;&gt;bogus&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;br&gt;   &lt;hr/&gt;   Currently selected: {{ {selected_color:color}  }}   &lt;div style=&quot;border:solid 1px black; height:20px&quot;        ng-style=&quot;{&#39;background-color&#39;:color.name}&quot;&gt;   &lt;/div&gt; &lt;/div&gt; 

    </doc:source> <doc:scenario> it('should check ng-options', function() { expect(binding('{selectedcolor:color}')).toMatch('red'); select('color').option('0'); expect(binding('{selectedcolor:color}')).toMatch('black'); using('.nullable').select('color').option(''); expect(binding('{selected_color:color}')).toMatch('null'); }); </doc:scenario> </doc:example>

var ngOptionsDirective = valueFn({ terminal: true });
var selectDirective = ['$compile', '$parse', function($compile,   $parse) {

0000111110000000000022220000000000000000000000333300000000000000444444444444444440000000005555555555555555500000006666666666666666600000000000000077770

  var NG_OPTIONS_REGEXP = /^\s*(.*?)(?:\s+as\s+(.*?))?(?:\s+group\s+by\s+(.*))?\s+for\s+(?:([\$\w][\$\w\d]*)|(?:\(\s*([\$\w][\$\w\d]*)\s*,\s*([\$\w][\$\w\d]*)\s*\)))\s+in\s+(.*)$/,
      nullModelCtrl = {$setViewValue: noop};

  return {
    restrict: 'E',
    require: ['select', '?ngModel'],
    controller: ['$element', '$scope', '$attrs', function($element, $scope, $attrs) {
      var self = this,
          optionsMap = {},
          ngModelCtrl = nullModelCtrl,
          nullOption,
          unknownOption;


      self.databound = $attrs.ngModel;


      self.init = function(ngModelCtrl_, nullOption_, unknownOption_) {
        ngModelCtrl = ngModelCtrl_;
        nullOption = nullOption_;
        unknownOption = unknownOption_;
      }


      self.addOption = function(value) {
        optionsMap[value] = true;

        if (ngModelCtrl.$viewValue == value) {
          $element.val(value);
          if (unknownOption.parent()) unknownOption.remove();
        }
      };


      self.removeOption = function(value) {
        if (this.hasOption(value)) {
          delete optionsMap[value];
          if (ngModelCtrl.$viewValue == value) {
            this.renderUnknownOption(value);
          }
        }
      };


      self.renderUnknownOption = function(val) {
        var unknownVal = '? ' + hashKey(val) + ' ?';
        unknownOption.val(unknownVal);
        $element.prepend(unknownOption);
        $element.val(unknownVal);
        unknownOption.prop('selected', true); // needed for IE
      }


      self.hasOption = function(value) {
        return optionsMap.hasOwnProperty(value);
      }

      $scope.$on('$destroy', function() {

disable unknown option so that we don't do work when the whole select is being destroyed

        self.renderUnknownOption = noop;
      });
    }],

    link: function(scope, element, attr, ctrls) {

if ngModel is not defined, we don't need to do anything

      if (!ctrls[1]) return;

      var selectCtrl = ctrls[0],
          ngModelCtrl = ctrls[1],
          multiple = attr.multiple,
          optionsExp = attr.ngOptions,
          nullOption = false, // if false, user will not be able to select it (used by ngOptions)
          emptyOption,

we can't just jqLite('<option>') since jqLite is not smart enough to create it in <select> and IE barfs otherwise.

          optionTemplate = jqLite(document.createElement('option')),
          optGroupTemplate =jqLite(document.createElement('optgroup')),
          unknownOption = optionTemplate.clone();

find "null" option

      for(var i = 0, children = element.children(), ii = children.length; i < ii; i++) {
        if (children[i].value == '') {
          emptyOption = nullOption = children.eq(i);
          break;
        }
      }

      selectCtrl.init(ngModelCtrl, nullOption, unknownOption);

required validator

      if (multiple && (attr.required || attr.ngRequired)) {
        var requiredValidator = function(value) {
          ngModelCtrl.$setValidity('required', !attr.required || (value && value.length));
          return value;
        };

        ngModelCtrl.$parsers.push(requiredValidator);
        ngModelCtrl.$formatters.unshift(requiredValidator);

        attr.$observe('required', function() {
          requiredValidator(ngModelCtrl.$viewValue);
        });
      }

      if (optionsExp) Options(scope, element, ngModelCtrl);
      else if (multiple) Multiple(scope, element, ngModelCtrl);
      else Single(scope, element, ngModelCtrl, selectCtrl);

//////////////////////////

      function Single(scope, selectElement, ngModelCtrl, selectCtrl) {
        ngModelCtrl.$render = function() {
          var viewValue = ngModelCtrl.$viewValue;

          if (selectCtrl.hasOption(viewValue)) {
            if (unknownOption.parent()) unknownOption.remove();
            selectElement.val(viewValue);
            if (viewValue === '') emptyOption.prop('selected', true); // to make IE9 happy
          } else {
            if (isUndefined(viewValue) && emptyOption) {
              selectElement.val('');
            } else {
              selectCtrl.renderUnknownOption(viewValue);
            }
          }
        };

        selectElement.bind('change', function() {
          scope.$apply(function() {
            if (unknownOption.parent()) unknownOption.remove();
            ngModelCtrl.$setViewValue(selectElement.val());
          });
        });
      }

      function Multiple(scope, selectElement, ctrl) {
        var lastView;
        ctrl.$render = function() {
          var items = new HashMap(ctrl.$viewValue);
          forEach(selectElement.find('option'), function(option) {
            option.selected = isDefined(items.get(option.value));
          });
        };

we have to do it on each watch since ngModel watches reference, but we need to work of an array, so we need to see if anything was inserted/removed

        scope.$watch(function selectMultipleWatch() {
          if (!equals(lastView, ctrl.$viewValue)) {
            lastView = copy(ctrl.$viewValue);
            ctrl.$render();
          }
        });

        selectElement.bind('change', function() {
          scope.$apply(function() {
            var array = [];
            forEach(selectElement.find('option'), function(option) {
              if (option.selected) {
                array.push(option.value);
              }
            });
            ctrl.$setViewValue(array);
          });
        });
      }

      function Options(scope, selectElement, ctrl) {
        var match;

        if (! (match = optionsExp.match(NG_OPTIONS_REGEXP))) {
          throw Error(
            "Expected ngOptions in form of '_select_ (as _label_)? for (_key_,)?_value_ in _collection_'" +
            " but got '" + optionsExp + "'.");
        }

        var displayFn = $parse(match[2] || match[1]),
            valueName = match[4] || match[6],
            keyName = match[5],
            groupByFn = $parse(match[3] || ''),
            valueFn = $parse(match[2] ? match[1] : valueName),
            valuesFn = $parse(match[7]),

This is an array of array of existing option groups in DOM. We try to reuse these if possible optionGroupsCache[0] is the options with no option group optionGroupsCache[?][0] is the parent: either the SELECT or OPTGROUP element

            optionGroupsCache = [[{element: selectElement, label:''}]];

        if (nullOption) {

compile the element since there might be bindings in it

          $compile(nullOption)(scope);

remove the class, which is added automatically because we recompile the element and it becomes the compilation root

          nullOption.removeClass('ng-scope');

we need to remove it before calling selectElement.html('') because otherwise IE will remove the label from the element. wtf?

          nullOption.remove();
        }

clear contents, we'll add what's needed based on the model

        selectElement.html('');

        selectElement.bind('change', function() {
          scope.$apply(function() {
            var optionGroup,
                collection = valuesFn(scope) || [],
                locals = {},
                key, value, optionElement, index, groupIndex, length, groupLength;

            if (multiple) {
              value = [];
              for (groupIndex = 0, groupLength = optionGroupsCache.length;
                   groupIndex < groupLength;
                   groupIndex++) {

list of options for that group. (first item has the parent)

                optionGroup = optionGroupsCache[groupIndex];

                for(index = 1, length = optionGroup.length; index < length; index++) {
                  if ((optionElement = optionGroup[index].element)[0].selected) {
                    key = optionElement.val();
                    if (keyName) locals[keyName] = key;
                    locals[valueName] = collection[key];
                    value.push(valueFn(scope, locals));
                  }
                }
              }
            } else {
              key = selectElement.val();
              if (key == '?') {
                value = undefined;
              } else if (key == ''){
                value = null;
              } else {
                locals[valueName] = collection[key];
                if (keyName) locals[keyName] = key;
                value = valueFn(scope, locals);
              }
            }
            ctrl.$setViewValue(value);
          });
        });

        ctrl.$render = render;

TODO(vojta): can't we optimize this ?

        scope.$watch(render);

        function render() {
          var optionGroups = {'':[]}, // Temporary location for the option groups before we render them
              optionGroupNames = [''],
              optionGroupName,
              optionGroup,
              option,
              existingParent, existingOptions, existingOption,
              modelValue = ctrl.$modelValue,
              values = valuesFn(scope) || [],
              keys = keyName ? sortedKeys(values) : values,
              groupLength, length,
              groupIndex, index,
              locals = {},
              selected,
              selectedSet = false, // nothing is selected yet
              lastElement,
              element,
              label;

          if (multiple) {
            selectedSet = new HashMap(modelValue);
          } else if (modelValue === null || nullOption) {

if we are not multiselect, and we are null then we have to add the nullOption

            optionGroups[''].push({selected:modelValue === null, id:'', label:''});
            selectedSet = true;
          }

We now build up the list of options we need (we merge later)

          for (index = 0; length = keys.length, index < length; index++) {
               locals[valueName] = values[keyName ? locals[keyName]=keys[index]:index];
               optionGroupName = groupByFn(scope, locals) || '';
            if (!(optionGroup = optionGroups[optionGroupName])) {
              optionGroup = optionGroups[optionGroupName] = [];
              optionGroupNames.push(optionGroupName);
            }
            if (multiple) {
              selected = selectedSet.remove(valueFn(scope, locals)) != undefined;
            } else {
              selected = modelValue === valueFn(scope, locals);
              selectedSet = selectedSet || selected; // see if at least one item is selected
            }
            label = displayFn(scope, locals); // what will be seen by the user
            label = label === undefined ? '' : label; // doing displayFn(scope, locals) || '' overwrites zero values
            optionGroup.push({
              id: keyName ? keys[index] : index,   // either the index into array or key from object
              label: label,
              selected: selected                   // determine if we should be selected
            });
          }
          if (!multiple && !selectedSet) {

nothing was selected, we have to insert the undefined item

            optionGroups[''].unshift({id:'?', label:'', selected:true});
          }

Now we need to update the list of DOM nodes to match the optionGroups we computed above

          for (groupIndex = 0, groupLength = optionGroupNames.length;
               groupIndex < groupLength;
               groupIndex++) {

current option group name or '' if no group

            optionGroupName = optionGroupNames[groupIndex];

list of options for that group. (first item has the parent)

            optionGroup = optionGroups[optionGroupName];

            if (optionGroupsCache.length <= groupIndex) {

we need to grow the optionGroups

              existingParent = {
                element: optGroupTemplate.clone().attr('label', optionGroupName),
                label: optionGroup.label
              };
              existingOptions = [existingParent];
              optionGroupsCache.push(existingOptions);
              selectElement.append(existingParent.element);
            } else {
              existingOptions = optionGroupsCache[groupIndex];
              existingParent = existingOptions[0];  // either SELECT (no group) or OPTGROUP element

update the OPTGROUP label if not the same.

              if (existingParent.label != optionGroupName) {
                existingParent.element.attr('label', existingParent.label = optionGroupName);
              }
            }

            lastElement = null;  // start at the beginning
            for(index = 0, length = optionGroup.length; index < length; index++) {
              option = optionGroup[index];
              if ((existingOption = existingOptions[index+1])) {

reuse elements

                lastElement = existingOption.element;
                if (existingOption.label !== option.label) {
                  lastElement.text(existingOption.label = option.label);
                }
                if (existingOption.id !== option.id) {
                  lastElement.val(existingOption.id = option.id);
                }
                if (existingOption.element.selected !== option.selected) {
                  lastElement.prop('selected', (existingOption.selected = option.selected));
                }
              } else {

grow elements

if it's a null option

                if (option.id === '' && nullOption) {

put back the pre-compiled element

                  element = nullOption;
                } else {

jQuery(v1.4.2) Bug: We should be able to chain the method calls, but in this version of jQuery on some browser the .text() returns a string rather then the element.

                  (element = optionTemplate.clone())
                      .val(option.id)
                      .attr('selected', option.selected)
                      .text(option.label);
                }

                existingOptions.push(existingOption = {
                    element: element,
                    label: option.label,
                    id: option.id,
                    selected: option.selected
                });
                if (lastElement) {
                  lastElement.after(element);
                } else {
                  existingParent.element.append(element);
                }
                lastElement = element;
              }
            }

remove any excessive OPTIONs in a group

            index++; // increment since the existingOptions[0] is parent element not OPTION
            while(existingOptions.length > index) {
              existingOptions.pop().element.remove();
            }
          }

remove any excessive OPTGROUPs from select

          while(optionGroupsCache.length > groupIndex) {
            optionGroupsCache.pop()[0].element.remove();
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
}];

var optionDirective = ['$interpolate', function($interpolate) {
  var nullSelectCtrl = {
    addOption: noop,
    removeOption: noop
  };

  return {
    restrict: 'E',
    priority: 100,
    compile: function(element, attr) {
      if (isUndefined(attr.value)) {
        var interpolateFn = $interpolate(element.text(), true);
        if (!interpolateFn) {
          attr.$set('value', element.text());
        }
      }

      return function (scope, element, attr) {
        var selectCtrlName = '$selectController',
            parent = element.parent(),
            selectCtrl = parent.data(selectCtrlName) ||
              parent.parent().data(selectCtrlName); // in case we are in optgroup

        if (selectCtrl && selectCtrl.databound) {

For some reason Opera defaults to true and if not overridden this messes up the repeater. We don't want the view to drive the initialization of the model anyway.

          element.prop('selected', false);
        } else {
          selectCtrl = nullSelectCtrl;
        }

        if (interpolateFn) {
          scope.$watch(interpolateFn, function interpolateWatchAction(newVal, oldVal) {
            attr.$set('value', newVal);
            if (newVal !== oldVal) selectCtrl.removeOption(oldVal);
            selectCtrl.addOption(newVal);
          });
        } else {
          selectCtrl.addOption(attr.value);
        }

        element.bind('$destroy', function() {
          selectCtrl.removeOption(attr.value);
        });
      };
    }
  }
}];

var styleDirective = valueFn({
  restrict: 'E',
  terminal: true
});

try to bind to jquery now so that one can write angular.element().read() but we will rebind on bootstrap again.

  bindJQuery();

  publishExternalAPI(angular);

  jqLite(document).ready(function() {
    angularInit(document, bootstrap);
  });

})(window, document);
angular.element(document).find('head').append('<style type="text/css">@charset "UTF-8";[ng\\:cloak],[ng-cloak],[data-ng-cloak],[x-ng-cloak],.ng-cloak,.x-ng-cloak{display:none;}ng\\:form{display:block;}</style>');